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Search: authors:"Rudy J. Castellani"

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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: A paradigm in search of evidence?

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has been in the medical literature since the 1920s. It is characterized clinically by diverse neuropsychiatric symptoms, and pathologically by variable degrees of phosphorylated tau accumulation in the brain. The evolving paradigm for the pathogenesis of CTE suggests that concussion or subconcussion from athletic participation initiates a...

Antimicrobial peptide β-defensin-1 expression is upregulated in Alzheimer’s brain

Background The human β-defensins (hBDs) are a highly conserved family of cationic antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides expressed primarily by epithelial cells in response to invasion by bacteria, fungi and some viruses. To date, the most studied members of this family of peptides are hBD-1, -2, and -3. Expression of hBD-1 and -2 has been demonstrated previously in cultured...

A novel origin for granulovacuolar degeneration in aging and Alzheimer's disease: parallels to stress granules

The phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (pS6) is associated with the 40S ribosomal subunit in eukaryotes and is thought to have a role in RNA storage, degradation, and re-entry into translation. In this study, we found pS6 localized to granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) within the pyramidal neurons. Immunohistochemical analysis found that nearly 20-fold more neurons contain pS6...

Expression of CD74 is increased in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by progressive memory loss. Pathological markers of AD include neurofibrillary tangles, accumulation of amyloid-β plaques, neuronal loss, and inflammation. The exact events that lead to the neuronal dysfunction and loss are not completely understood. However, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as...

Ectopic localization of FOXO3a protein in Lewy bodies in Lewy body dementia and Parkinson's disease

Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites constitute the cardinal neuropathological features of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). Whereas α-synuclein has been found to be the major component of the Lewy body, the mechanisms by which neurons degenerate, as well as basic mechanisms involved in the formation of α-synuclein-related inclusions, remain obscure. We have...

Cell Cycle Re-Entry and Mitochondrial Defects in Myc-Mediated Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure

While considerable evidence supports the causal relationship between increases in c-Myc (Myc) and cardiomyopathy as a part of a “fetal re-expression” pattern, the functional role of Myc in mechanisms of cardiomyopathy remains unclear. To address this, we developed a bitransgenic mouse that inducibly expresses Myc under the control of the cardiomyocyte-specific MHC promoter. In...