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What is the impact of child abuse on gray matter abnormalities in individuals with major depressive disorder: a case control study

Background Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) present heterogeneous clinical symptoms, and childhood abuse is associated with deepening of psychopathology. The aim of this study was to identify structural brain abnormalities in MDD and to assess further differences in gray matter density (GMD) associated with childhood abuse in MDD. Methods Differences in regional GMD...

Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Improving Efficiency: TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in Active Layer

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been widely studied due to several advantages, such as low cost-to-performance ratio, low cost of fabrication, functionality at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, and low weight. This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the...

Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Improving Efficiency: TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in Active Layer

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been widely studied due to several advantages, such as low cost-to-performance ratio, low cost of fabrication, functionality at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, and low weight. This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the...

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation reduces EAE-induced white matter damage in mice

Background To evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, we examined the effects of apocynin, an NADPH oxidase assembly inhibitor, on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG (35-55)) in C57BL/6 female mice...

Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study

Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), measured by a simple step test, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults, in a cross sectional design. Methods A total of 1,007 Korean adults (488 men and 519 women) who underwent routine health checkups were recruited. CRF was measured by...

Prevention of hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death by minocycline

Diabetic patients who attempt strict management of blood glucose levels frequently experience hypoglycemia. Severe and prolonged hypoglycemia causes neuronal death and cognitive impairment. There is no effective tool for prevention of these unwanted clinical sequelae. Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline derivative, has been recognized as an anti-inflammatory and...

Recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia induces hippocampal dendritic injury, microglial activation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats

Background Recurrent/moderate (R/M) hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes. Although mild or moderate hypoglycemia is not life-threatening, if recurrent, it may cause cognitive impairment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether R/M hypoglycemia leads to neuronal death, dendritic injury, or cognitive impairment. Methods The experiments were conducted in normal and...

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid β

Background Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglial activation also occurs in AD, and this inflammatory response may contribute to disease progression. Microglial activation can be induced by Aβ, but the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been defined. The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates microglial activation...