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Evaluation from otolith Sr stable isotope ratios of possible juvenile growth areas of Japanese eels collected from the West Mariana Ridge spawning area

The widely distributed East Asian Japanese eel Anguilla japonica constitutes a single genetically homogeneous population with a single spawning area near the West Mariana Ridge. Otolith 87Sr/86Sr ratios of adults (categorized as “river“, “estuarine” or “sea” eels, according to their habitat use history determined from otolith Sr:Ca ratio analysis) collected from the spawning area...

Universal PCR primers for ribosomal protein gene introns of fish

Human ribosomal protein (RP) gene sequences with respect to intron/exon structures and corresponding cDNA or genomic data of fish species were obtained from the GenBank database. Based on conserved exon sequences, 128 primer pairs for 41 genes were designed for exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In reference to the draft genome sequences of the...

Locus-specific EPIC-PCR primers for four distinct calmodulin genes of the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844)

Nucleotide sequences of four distinct calmodulin genes (designated as CaM-A to -D) of the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) were compared. Nucleotide sequence divergence between the coding regions of four genes ranged from 16.0 to 21.6%, and locus-specific eight primer pairs targeting introns were designed. These primer pairs amplified expected size of fragments in five...

Universal primers for exon-priming intron-crossing (EPIC) PCR on ribosomal protein genes in marine animals

Relatively conserved exon sequences among distant aquatic animal taxa (Copepoda, Echinodermata, and Teleostei) were determined for 12 ribosomal protein genes, and 19 primer pairs were designed for an exon-primed intron-crossing polymerase chain reaction strategy. The universal utility of these primers was evaluated in distant animal species (sea urchin, squid, crab, shark, and...

Falsirhodobacter sp. alg1 Harbors Single Homologs of Endo and Exo-Type Alginate Lyases Efficient for Alginate Depolymerization

Alginate-degrading bacteria play an important role in alginate degradation by harboring highly efficient and unique alginolytic genes. Although the general mechanism for alginate degradation by these bacteria is fairly understood, much is still required to fully exploit them. Here, we report the isolation of a novel strain, Falsirhodobacter sp. alg1, the first report for an...

On the Fourth Diadema Species (Diadema-sp) from Japan

Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively...

Electrical Retrieval of Living Microorganisms from Cryopreserved Marine Sponges Using a Potential-Controlled Electrode

The purpose of this study was to develop a novel electrical retrieval method (ER method) for living sponge-associated microorganisms from marine sponges frozen at −80 °C. A −0.3-V vs. Ag/AgCl constant potential applied for 2 h at 9 °C induced the attachment of the sponge-associated microorganisms to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) or a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass (GZO) working...

Light-Sensitive Vertical Migration of the Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica Revealed by Real-Time Tracking and Its Utilization for Geolocation

Short-time tracking (one to eight days) of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) using ultrasonic transmitter was performed in the tropical-subtropical area adjacent to the spawning area and temperate area off the Japanese Archipelago. Of 16 eels (11 wild and five farmed) used, 10 wild eels displayed clear diel vertical migration (DVM) from the beginning, while the other five...

Discovery of a spawning area of the common Japanese conger Conger myriaster along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western North Pacific

The common Japanese conger Conger myriaster is an important commercial coastal fisheries species in East Asia, but its spawning area has not been determined. A larval sampling survey was conducted in September 2008 along 136°E between 13°N and 22°N, which roughly followed the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western North Pacific. Twenty larval specimens were confirmed to be C...

Efficiency of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Directed PCR Clamping and Its Application in the Investigation of Natural Diets of the Japanese Eel Leptocephali

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-clamping using blocking primer and DNA-analogs, such as peptide nucleotide acid (PNA), may be used to selectively amplify target DNA for molecular diet analysis. We investigated PCR-clamping efficiency by studying PNA position and mismatch with complementary DNA by designing PNAs at five different positions on the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed...

Determining the Diet of Larvae of Western Rock Lobster (Panulirus cygnus) Using High-Throughput DNA Sequencing Techniques

The Western Australian rock lobster fishery has been both a highly productive and sustainable fishery. However, a recent dramatic and unexplained decline in post-larval recruitment threatens this sustainability. Our lack of knowledge of key processes in lobster larval ecology, such as their position in the food web, limits our ability to determine what underpins this decline. The...

A late-stage phyllosoma larva of the spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Crustacea: Palinuridae) identified by DNA analysis

A late-stage phyllosoma larva of the genus Panulirus was caught in the central Atlantic in October 2000. Nucleotide sequence analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA identified this larva as Panulirus echinatus, which has been undescribed to date. Morphological examination indicated that this eighth stage larva belonged to phyllosoma species group 2, distinguishable from the other...

Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples...