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Association between Blood Lead Levels and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Purpose To investigate the association between blood lead levels and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study included 4,933 subjects aged over 40 years who participated in the 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and for whom fundus photographs were available. All participants...

Interocular Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Difference in Normal Adults

Purpose To determine the interocular retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness difference of normal subjects. Methods Both eyes of 230 normal adults received peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements using OCT. The effect of ocular cyclotorsion on the RNFL thickness profile was mathematically corrected. The fractional and absolute interocular RNFL thickness differences at 256...

Complete Plastid Genome Sequences of Three Rosids (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma): Evidence for At Least Two Independent Transfers of rpl22 to the Nucleus

Functional gene transfer from the plastid to the nucleus is rare among land plants despite evidence that DNA transfer to the nucleus is relatively frequent. During the course of sequencing plastid genomes from representative species from three rosid genera (Castanea, Prunus, Theobroma) and ongoing projects focusing on the Fagaceae and Passifloraceae, we identified putative losses...

Production of active recombinant eIF5A: reconstitution in E.coli of eukaryotic hypusine modification of eIF5A by its coexpression with modifying enzymes

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains the polyamine-modified lysine, hypusine [Nε-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. Hypusine occurs only in eukaryotes and certain archaea, but not in eubacteria. It is formed post-translationally by two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and...

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

Background The production of Citrus, the largest fruit crop of international economic value, has recently been imperiled due to the introduction of the bacterial disease Citrus canker. No significant improvements have been made to combat this disease by plant breeding and nuclear transgenic approaches. Chloroplast genetic engineering has a number of advantages over nuclear...

Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

Background The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these...

Complete plastid genome sequence of Daucus carota: Implications for biotechnology and phylogeny of angiosperms

Background Carrot (Daucus carota) is a major food crop in the US and worldwide. Its capacity for storage and its lifecycle as a biennial make it an attractive species for the introduction of foreign genes, especially for oral delivery of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. Until recently efforts to express recombinant proteins in carrot have had limited success in terms of...

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gossypium hirsutum: organization and phylogenetic relationships to other angiosperms

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is the most important fiber crop grown in 90 countries. In 2004–2005, US farmers planted 79% of the 5.7-million hectares of nuclear transgenic cotton. Unfortunately, genetically modified cotton has the potential to hybridize with other cultivated and wild relatives, resulting in geographical restrictions to cultivation. However, chloroplast...

Accumulation of sweet protein monellin is regulated by thepsbA 5′UTR in tobacco chloroplasts

Post-transcriptional RNA processing and translational regulations are important steps for gene expression. To analyze the 5′UTRof psbA that enhances translation of the sweet protein monellin in chloroplasts, we cloned the monellin gene, with and without thepsbA 5′UTR, into the chloroplast expression vector for chloroplast transformation. Transgenic plants were identified as being...