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Detection of genomic loci associated with chromosomal recombination using high-density linkage mapping in Setaria

Meiotic recombination is essential to sexual reproduction and the generation of genetic diversity. Variation in recombination rates is presently of particular interest due to efforts being made to increase the rate of genetic gain in agricultural crops by breaking up large linkage disequilibrium blocks containing both beneficial and detrimental alleles. Here, a high-density...

Loose Panicle1 encoding a novel WRKY transcription factor, regulates panicle development, stem elongation, and seed size in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.]

Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1), which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern...

Parkinson’s Disease and Cognitive Impairment

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson’s disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson’s disease is more...

The Progress of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as Models of Parkinson’s Disease

In recent years, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were widely used for investigating the mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Somatic cells from patients with SNCA (α-synuclein), LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), Parkin mutations, and at-risk individuals carrying GBA (β-glucocerebrosidase) mutations have been successfully...

The Progress of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as Models of Parkinson’s Disease

In recent years, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were widely used for investigating the mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Somatic cells from patients with SNCA (α-synuclein), LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), Parkin mutations, and at-risk individuals carrying GBA (β-glucocerebrosidase) mutations have been successfully...

Exome sequencing covers >98% of mutations identified on targeted next generation sequencing panels

Background With the expanded availability of next generation sequencing (NGS)-based clinical genetic tests, clinicians seeking to test patients with Mendelian diseases must weigh the superior coverage of targeted gene panels with the greater number of genes included in whole exome sequencing (WES) when considering their first-tier testing approach. Here, we use an in silico...

Combined small RNA and degradome sequencing to identify miRNAs and their targets in response to drought in foxtail millet

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a diploid C 4 panicoid species. Because of its prominent drought resistance, small genome size, self-pollination, and short life cycle, foxtail millet has become an ideal model system for studying drought tolerance of crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that play important regulatory roles in the development and...

The C-terminal motif of SiAGO1b is required for the regulation of growth, development and stress responses in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv)

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv), which belongs to the Panicoideae tribe of the Poaceae, is an important grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India. It is currently developing into a novel model species for functional genomics of the Panicoideae as a result of its fully available reference genome sequence, small diploid genome (2n=18, ~510Mb), short life...

VPS35-deficiency results in an impaired AMPA receptor trafficking and decreased dendritic spine maturation

Background Vacuolar protein sorting 35 (VPS35), a key component of retromer, plays an important role in endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of VPS35/retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including AD (Alzheimer’s disease) and PD (Parkinson’s disease). However, exactly how VPS35-deficiency contributes to AD or PD pathogenesis remains...

BAG5 Interacts with DJ-1 and Inhibits the Neuroprotective Effects of DJ-1 to Combat Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage

-guang Tang,1 Bo Jiang,1 Xiang-min Shen,1 Ji-feng Guo,2,5,6,7 Bei-sha Tang,2,5,6,7 Li-ming Tan,1 and Chun-yu Wang1 1Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha ... therapeutic. Competing Interests The authors have no actual or potential conflict of interests to report. Authors’ Contributions Chun-yu Wang, Bei-sha Tang, and Li-ming Tan contributed to the conception and

BAG5 Interacts with DJ-1 and Inhibits the Neuroprotective Effects of DJ-1 to Combat Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage

-guang Tang,1 Bo Jiang,1 Xiang-min Shen,1 Ji-feng Guo,2,5,6,7 Bei-sha Tang,2,5,6,7 Li-ming Tan,1 and Chun-yu Wang1 1Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha ... therapeutic. Competing Interests The authors have no actual or potential conflict of interests to report. Authors’ Contributions Chun-yu Wang, Bei-sha Tang, and Li-ming Tan contributed to the conception and

Germline activating MTOR mutation arising through gonadal mosaicism in two brothers with megalencephaly and neurodevelopmental abnormalities

Rasmussen Deepali N. Shinde Robert Huether Zoe Powis Hsiao-Mei Lu Ruth M. Baxter Elizabeth McPherson Sha Tang Background: In humans, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (MTOR) encodes a 300 kDa serine/ threonine

Characterization of the Transcriptome of the Xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus Leaves under Drought Stress by 454 Pyrosequencing

Background Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (Maxim. Ex Kom.) Cheng f., an endangered ancient legume species, endemic to the Gobi desert in north-western China. As the only evergreen broadleaf shrub in this area, A. mongolicus plays an important role in the region’s ecological-environmental stability. Despite the strong potential of A. mongolicus in providing new insights on drought...

Germline activating MTOR mutation arising through gonadal mosaicism in two brothers with megalencephaly and neurodevelopmental abnormalities

In humans, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (MTOR) encodes a 300 kDa serine/ threonine protein kinase that is ubiquitously expressed, particularly at high levels in brain. MTOR functions as an integrator of multiple cellular processes, and in so doing either directly or indirectly regulates the phosphorylation of at least 800 proteins. While somatic MTOR mutations have been...

Effect of GBA Mutations on Phenotype of Parkinson’s Disease: A Study on Chinese Population and a Meta-Analysis

GBA has been identified as a genetic risk factor for PD. Whether the clinical manifestations of PD patients with or without GBA mutations are different has still not reached a consensus. We firstly detected the GBA mutation L444P in 1147 Chinese PD patients and simultaneously evaluated their corresponding clinical data. Then we compared the phenotypes between 646 PD patients with...

Genetic Identification Is Critical for the Diagnosis of Parkinsonism: A Chinese Pedigree with Early Onset of Parkinsonism

Background A number of hereditary neurological diseases display indistinguishable features at the early disease stage. Parkinsonian symptoms can be found in numerous diseases, making it difficult to get a definitive early diagnosis of primary causes for patients with onset of parkinsonism. The accurate and early diagnosis of the causes of parkinsonian patients is important for...

Genome-wide identification and functional prediction of novel and drought-responsive lincRNAs in Populus trichocarpa

Protein-coding genes are considered to be a dominant component of the eukaryotic transcriptome; however, many studies have shown that intergenic, non-coding transcripts also play an important role. Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) were found to play a vital role in human and Arabidopsis. However, lincRNAs and their regulatory roles remain poorly characterized in woody...

Overexpression of the poplar NF-YB7 transcription factor confers drought tolerance and improves water-use efficiency in Arabidopsis

Water deficit is a serious environmental factor limiting the growth and productivity of plants worldwide. Improvement of drought tolerance and efficient water use are significant strategies to overcome this dilemma. In this study, a drought-responsive transcription factor, NUCLEAR FACTOR Y subunit B 7 (PdNF-YB7), induced by osmotic stress (PEG6000) and abscisic acid, was isolated...