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Brain-transportable dipeptides across the blood-brain barrier in mice

Apart from nutrients required for the brain, there has been no report that naturally occurring peptides can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to identify the BBB-transportable peptides using in situ mouse perfusion experiments. Based on the structural features of Gly-N-methylated Gly (Gly-Sar), a reported BBB-transportable compound, 18 dipeptides were...

Contribution of thrombin-reactive brain pericytes to blood-brain barrier dysfunction in an in vivo mouse model of obesity-associated diabetes and an in vitro rat model

Diabetic complications are characterized by the dysfunction of pericytes located around microvascular endothelial cells. The blood–brain barrier (BBB) exhibits hyperpermeability with progression of diabetes. Therefore, brain pericytes at the BBB may be involved in diabetic complications of the central nervous system (CNS). We hypothesized that brain pericytes respond to increased...

Alpha Adrenergic Induction of Transport of Lysosomal Enzyme across the Blood-Brain Barrier

The impermeability of the adult blood-brain barrier (BBB) to lysosomal enzymes impedes the ability to treat the central nervous system manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases. Here, we found that simultaneous stimulation of the alpha1 and alpha2 adrenoreceptor restores in adult mice the high rate of transport for the lysosomal enzyme P-GUS that is seen in neonates but lost...

Brain pericytes increase the lipopolysaccharide-enhanced transcytosis of HIV-1 free virus across the in vitro blood–brain barrier: evidence for cytokine-mediated pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk

pericyte-endothelial cell crosstalk Shinya Dohgu 1 William A Banks 0 1 0 Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center, Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle WA and Division of Gerontology and

Lipopolysaccharide-enhanced transcellular transport of HIV-1 across the blood-brain barrier is mediated by luminal microvessel IL-6 and GM-CSF

Shinya Dohgu 0 Melissa A Fleegal-DeMotta 0 William A Banks 0 0 Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center-St. Louis , St. Louis, MO , USA Elevated levels of cytokines/chemokines contribute

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Uses the Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor to Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier

HIV-1 circulates both as free virus and within immune cells, with the level of free virus being predictive of clinical course. Both forms of HIV-1 cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms by which infected immune cells cross the blood-brain barrier BBB. How HIV-1 as free virus crosses the BBB is less clear as brain...

Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells

Background Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether...

Cyclophilin A secreted from fibroblast-like synoviocytes is involved in the induction of CD147 expression in macrophages of mice with collagen-induced arthritis

Background Cyclophilin A (CypA), a member of the immunophilin family, is a ubiquitously distributed intracellular protein. Recent studies have shown that CypA is secreted by cells in response to inflammatory stimuli. Elevated levels of extracellular CypA and its receptor, CD147 have been detected in the synovium of patients with RA. However, the precise process of interaction...

In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models Using Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells Isolated from Neonatal and Adult Rats Retain Age-Related Barrier Properties

Dohgu Atsushi Yamauchi Junichi Matsumoto Takashi Machida Kayoko Fujishita Keisuke Shibata Youichi Shinozaki Kaoru Sato Yasufumi Kataoka Schuichi Koizumi Stefan Liebner, Institute of Neurology (Edinger

Brain pericytes among cells constituting the blood-brain barrier are highly sensitive to tumor necrosis factor-α, releasing matrix metalloproteinase-9 and migrating in vitro

Background Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the plasma and brain is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption through proteolytic activity in neuroinflammatory diseases. MMP-9 is present in the brain microvasculature and its vicinity, where brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes and astrocytes constitute the BBB. Little is known about the...