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IPLaminator: an ImageJ plugin for automated binning and quantification of retinal lamination

Background Information in the brain is often segregated into spatially organized layers that reflect the function of the embedded circuits. This is perhaps best exemplified in the layering, or lamination, of the retinal inner plexiform layer (IPL). The neurites of the retinal ganglion, amacrine and bipolar cell subtypes that form synapses in the IPL are precisely organized in...

Enhancer-associated long non-coding RNA LEENE regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelial function

The optimal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the hallmark of endothelial homeostasis, is vital to vascular function. Dynamically regulated by various stimuli, eNOS expression is modulated at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. However, epigenetic modulations of eNOS, particularly through long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and...

Innovation of a Regulatory Mechanism Modulating Semi-determinate Stem Growth through Artificial Selection in Soybean

It has been demonstrated that Terminal Flowering 1 (TFL1) in Arabidopsis and its functional orthologs in other plants specify indeterminate stem growth through their specific expression that represses floral identity genes in shoot apical meristems (SAMs), and that the loss-of-function mutations at these functional counterparts result in the transition of SAMs from the vegetative...

Morphological Diversity of the Rod Spherule: A Study of Serially Reconstructed Electron Micrographs

Purpose Rod spherules are the site of the first synaptic contact in the retina’s rod pathway, linking rods to horizontal and bipolar cells. Rod spherules have been described and characterized through electron micrograph (EM) and other studies, but their morphological diversity related to retinal circuitry and their intracellular structures have not been quantified. Most rod...

The Relationship between Cultural Anxiety and Ethnic Essentialism: The Mediating Role of an Endorsement of Multicultural Ideology

Many studies have explored the social consequences of ethnic essentialism in recent decades. In addition, a few studies have focused on the impact of perceived cultural context on ethnic essentialism. However, it is not clear why perceived cultural context can lead to changes in ethnic essentialism. In the present study, we hypothesized that the cultural anxiety of ethnic...

The Structural Basis of ATP as an Allosteric Modulator

Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and...

Bortezomib, a Proteasome Inhibitor, Attenuates Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Aortic Remodeling in Rats

Background Hypertension is a highly prevalent disorder and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hypertensive vascular remodeling is the pathological mal-adaption of blood vessels to the hypertensive condition that contributes to further development of high blood pressure and end-organ damage. Hypertensive remodeling involves, at least in part, changes in protein...

Effect of Bacteria on the Wound Healing Behavior of Oral Epithelial Cells

Wounded tissue offers opportunity to microflora to adhere, colonize, invade and infect surrounding healthy tissue. The bacteria of the oral cavity have the potential to alter the wound healing process by interacting with keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms through which oral bacteria may influence re-epithelialization by interacting with gingival...

P. gingivalis Modulates Keratinocytes through FOXO Transcription Factors

P. gingivalis is a prominent periodontal pathogen that has potent effects on host cells. In this study we challenged gingival epithelial cells with P. gingivalis with the aim of assessing how mRNA levels of key target genes were modulated by P. gingivalis via the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3. Primary mono- and multi-layer cultures of gingival epithelial cells were...

High Metastaticgastric and Breast Cancer Cells Consume Oleic Acid in an AMPK Dependent Manner

Gastric cancer and breast cancer have a clear tendency toward metastasis and invasion to the microenvironment predominantly composed of adipocytes. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated fatty acid that releases from adipocytes and impinges on different energy metabolism responses. The effect and underlying mechanisms of oleic acid on highly metastatic cancer cells are not...

Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma: Experience of a Major Chinese Cancer Center

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare heterogeneous group of primary breast malignancies, with low hormone receptor expression and poor outcomes. To date, no prognostic markers for this tumor have been validated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics, the response to various therapeutic regimens and the prognosis of MBCs in a...

The Heterogeneity and Spatial Patterning of Structure and Physiology across the Leaf Surface in Giant Leaves of Alocasia macrorrhiza

Leaf physiology determines the carbon acquisition of the whole plant, but there can be considerable variation in physiology and carbon acquisition within individual leaves. Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott is an herbaceous species that can develop very large leaves of up to 1 m in length. However, little is known about the hydraulic and photosynthetic design of such giant leaves...

Noscapine Induced Apoptosis via Downregulation of Survivin in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Having Wild Type or Null p53

Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell...

A Novel Mouse Dscam Mutation Inhibits Localization and Shedding of DSCAM

The differential adhesion hypothesis of development states that patterning of organisms, organs and tissues is mediated in large part by expression of cell adhesion molecules. The cues provided by cell adhesion molecules are also hypothesized to facilitate specific connectivity within the nervous system. In this study we characterize a novel mouse mutation in the gene Dscam (Down...

Incorporating Ab Initio energy into threading approaches for protein structure prediction

Background Native structures of proteins are formed essentially due to the combining effects of local and distant (in the sense of sequence) interactions among residues. These interaction information are, explicitly or implicitly, encoded into the scoring function in protein structure prediction approaches—threading approaches usually measure an alignment in the sense that how...

SEL1L deficiency impairs growth and differentiation of pancreatic epithelial cells

Background The vertebrate pancreas contains islet, acinar and ductal cells. These cells derive from a transient pool of multipotent pancreatic progenitors during embryonic development. Insight into the genetic determinants regulating pancreatic organogenesis will help the development of cell-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Suppressor enhancer lin12/Notch 1...

Evidence of Gene−Environment Interaction for Two Genes on Chromosome 4 and Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Controlling the Risk of Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate

Nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP) is one of the most common human birth defects and both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to its etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 550 CP case-parent trios ascertained in an international consortium. Stratified analysis among trios with different ancestries was performed to test for GxE interactions...