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Nanoparticles: Oral Delivery for Protein and Peptide Drugs

Protein and peptide drugs have many advantages, such as high bioactivity and specificity, strong solubility, and low toxicity. Therefore, the strategies for improving the bioavailability of protein peptides are reviewed, including chemical modification of nanocarriers, absorption enhancers, and mucous adhesion systems. The status, advantages, and disadvantages of various...

Transcriptome analysis of the irregular shape of shoot apical meristem in dt (dou tou) mutant of Brassica napus L.

 Shoot apical meristem (SAM) Cytokinin RNA sequencing  Ke-Ming Zhu and Shuo Xu contributed equally to this work. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article ( https://doi.org ... . napus. Notes Author contributions Ke-Ming Zhu and Shuo Xu performed most of the experiments and wrote the manuscript. Kai-Xia Li, Sheng Chen, Sundus Zafar, and Wei Cao helped perform the phenotype

Classification of fruit trichomes in cucumber and effects of plant hormones on type II fruit trichome development

The fruit trichomes or fruit spines of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., are highly specialized structures originating from epidermal cells with diverse morphology, which grow perpendicular to the fruit surface. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of fruit trichome development, in this study, we conducted morphological characterization and classification of cucumber...

Metabolic Profiling Analysis of the Alleviation Effect of the Fractions of Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet on Realgar Induced Toxicity in Rats

Niuhuang Jiedu Tablet (NJT) is a classical formula in treating acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, and so on. In the formula, significant level of Realgar as a potentially toxic element is contained. Our previous experiments revealed that it was less toxic for combined Realgar in NJT. However, the active fraction of this prescription with toxicity alleviation effect on Realgar was...

Actin like-6A promotes glioma progression through stabilization of transcriptional regulators YAP/TAZ

Increased Actin-like 6A (ACTL6A) expression has been implicated in the development of diverse cancers and recently associated with the Hippo signaling pathway, which is known to regulate biological properties, including proliferation, tissue regeneration, stem cell biology, as well as tumorigenesis. Here we first show that ACTL6A is upregulated in human gliomas and its expression...

Color Doppler Imaging Analysis of Ocular Blood Flow Velocities in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients: A Meta-Analysis

, China Received 17 May 2015; Accepted 26 July 2015 Academic Editor: Naoshi Kondo Copyright © 2015 Shuo Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ... matter or materials discussed in this study. Authors’ Contribution Shuo Xu and Yisheng Zhong conducted the analyses and wrote the draft of the paper; Shouyue Huang and Zhongjing Lin inputted and

Color Doppler Imaging Analysis of Ocular Blood Flow Velocities in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients: A Meta-Analysis

, China Received 17 May 2015; Accepted 26 July 2015 Academic Editor: Naoshi Kondo Copyright © 2015 Shuo Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution ... matter or materials discussed in this study. Authors’ Contribution Shuo Xu and Yisheng Zhong conducted the analyses and wrote the draft of the paper; Shouyue Huang and Zhongjing Lin inputted and

A case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration after resection of cavernomas of the brain stem and review of the literature

A case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration after resection of cavernomas of the brain stem and review of the literature Meng Zhang, Gengfan Ye, Lin Deng, Shuo Xu, Yunyan Wang Department of

Short-Term Reproducibility of Twenty-Four-Hour Intraocular Pressure Curves in Untreated Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension

Purpose To assess the short-term day-to-day reproducibility of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) curves in various respects in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OHT) patients. Methods 47 subjects with POAG and 34 subjects with OHT underwent IOP measurements every 2 hours in both eyes for consecutive 48 hours by a non-contact tonometer (NCT...

A CRF-based system for recognizing chemical entity mentions (CEMs) in biomedical literature

BackgroundIn order to improve information access on chemical compounds and drugs (chemical entities) described in text repositories, it is very crucial to be able to identify chemical entity mentions (CEMs) automatically within text. The CHEMDNER challenge in BioCreative IV was specially designed to promote the implementation of corresponding systems that are able to detect...

Using multitask classification methods to investigate the kinase-specific phosphorylation sites

Background Identification of phosphorylation sites by computational methods is becoming increasingly important because it reduces labor-intensive and costly experiments and can improve our understanding of the common properties and underlying mechanisms of protein phosphorylation. Methods A multitask learning framework for learning four kinase families simultaneously, instead of...

MiR-138 exerts anti-glioma efficacy by targeting immune checkpoints

Background Antibody therapeutic targeting of the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated molecule 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) has demonstrated marked tumor regression in clinical trials. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can modulate multiple gene transcripts including possibly more than one immune checkpoint and could be exploited as immune therapeutics.

Synergy between the ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 contributes to adenosinergic immunosuppression in human malignant gliomas

Background The importance of ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 in mediating adenosinergic immunosuppression has been recognized, but their roles in human malignant glioma–associated immunosuppression remain largely unknown.

Effect of miR-142-3p on the M2 Macrophage and Therapeutic Efficacy Against Murine Glioblastoma

Background The immune therapeutic potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the context of tumor-mediated immune suppression has not been previously described for monocyte-derived glioma-associated macrophages, which are the largest infiltrating immune cell population in glioblastomas and facilitate gliomagenesis.

The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that...

CLIN-IMMUNOTHERAPY/BIOLOGIC THERAPIES

-08. MIR-124 AS A NOVEL IMMUNOTHERAPEUTIC MOLECULE TO REVERSE GLIOMA-MEDIATED IMMUNE SUPPRESSION AND ENHANCE ANTI-TUMOR CLEARANCE Jun Wei, Ling-Yuan Kong , Fei Wang, Shuo Xu, Tiffany A. Doucette ... GRADE 2 LOW-GRADE GLIOMA Hideho Okada 8 IT-11. THE ANTI-TUMOR AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MIR-142-3P IN GLIOMA Shuo Xu, Jun Wei, Ling-Yuan Kong , Fei Wang , George Calin, and Amy B. Heimberger; The

IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH

There is increasing interest in considering brain tumors as tissues with underlying morphological and molecular organization that can be approached in much the same way as, for example, the subventricular zone of mammalian brain. Towards this end, we have interrogated sections of primary human glioma for antigens relevant for immunotherapy targeting such as IL13Ralpha2 (expressed...