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Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus in women with high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions in Botswana using Abbott RealTime HPV assay

, Sikhulile Moyo. Data curation: Patricia Rantshabeng, Ishmael Kasvosve, Sikhulile Moyo. Formal analysis: Patricia Rantshabeng, Sikhulile Moyo. Funding acquisition: Patricia Rantshabeng, Simani Gaseitsiwe ... , Sikhulile Moyo. Investigation: Patricia Rantshabeng, Ishmael Kasvosve, Andrew Ndlovu, Sikhulile Moyo. Methodology: Patricia Rantshabeng, Ishmael Kasvosve, Andrew Ndlovu, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Sikhulile Moyo

Correction: Immunological non-response and low hemoglobin levels are predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-infected individuals on Truvada-based therapy in Botswana

Sikhulile Moyo Kesaobaka Molebatsi Prisca K. Thami Motswedi Anderson Tuelo Mogashoa Thato Iketleng Joseph Makhema Richard Marlink Ishmael Kasvosve Max Essex Rosemary M. Musonda Simani Gaseitsiwe The ninth

Cross-sectional estimates revealed high HIV incidence in Botswana rural communities in the era of successful ART scale-up in 2013-2015

cross-sectional methods and use of IncTools. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Sikhulile Moyo, Molly Pretorius Holme, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Shahin Lockman, Joseph M. Makhema, Max Essex, Vlad ... Novitsky. Formal analysis: Sikhulile Moyo, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Vlad Novitsky. Funding acquisition: Shahin Lockman, Max Essex. Investigation: Sikhulile Moyo, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Terence Mohammed, Molly

Immunological non-response and low hemoglobin levels are predictors of incident tuberculosis among HIV-infected individuals on Truvada-based therapy in Botswana

Conceptualization: Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Rosemary M. Musonda, Simani Gaseitsiwe. Data curation: Joseph Makhema, Ric Marlink. Formal analysis: Lucy Mupfumi, Sikhulile Moyo, Kesaobaka Molebatsi, Prisca K ... . Thami. Supervision: Sikhulile Moyo, Ishmael Kasvosve, Rosemary M. Musonda, Simani Gaseitsiwe. Writing ± original draft: Lucy Mupfumi. Writing ± review & editing: Prisca K. Thami, Motswedi Anderson, Tuelo

Deciphering Multiplicity of HIV-1C Infection: Transmission of Closely Related Multiple Viral Lineages

Background A single viral variant is transmitted in the majority of HIV infections. However, about 20% of heterosexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by multiple viral variants. Detection of transmitted HIV variants is not trivial, as it involves analysis of multiple viral sequences representing intra-host HIV-1 quasispecies. Methodology We distinguish two types of...

Pre-clinical carotid atherosclerosis and sCD163 among virally suppressed HIV patients in Botswana compared with uninfected controls

, Shahin Lockman. Data curation: Mosepele Mosepele, Linda C. Hemphill, Walter Moloi, Sikhulile Moyo, Isaac Nkele, Virginia A. Triant, Shahin Lockman. Formal analysis: Mosepele Mosepele, Linda C. Hemphill ... , Walter Moloi, Kara Bennett, Virginia A. Triant, Shahin Lockman. Funding acquisition: Mosepele Mosepele, Linda C. Hemphill, Sikhulile Moyo, Joseph Makhema, Virginia A. Triant, Shahin Lockman

The effect of micronutrient supplementation on active TB incidence early in HIV infection in Botswana

Erik van Widenfelt,2 Sikhulile Moyo,2,3 Joseph Makhema,2 Max Essex,2,3 Richard Marlink3 1Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida

Analysis of Viral Diversity in Relation to the Recency of HIV-1C Infection in Botswana

Background Cross-sectional, biomarker methods to determine HIV infection recency present a promising and cost-effective alternative to the repeated testing of uninfected individuals. We evaluate a viral-based assay that uses a measure of pairwise distances (PwD) to identify HIV infection recency, and compare its performance with two serologic incidence assays, BED and LAg. In...

HIV-exposed children account for more than half of 24-month mortality in Botswana

Background The contribution of HIV-exposure to childhood mortality in a setting with widespread antiretroviral treatment (ART) availability has not been determined. Methods From January 2012 to March 2013, mothers were enrolled within 48 h of delivery at 5 government postpartum wards in Botswana. Participants were followed by phone 1–3 monthly for 24 months. Risk factors for 24...

Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

Background Little is known about the impact of knowledge of HIV serostatus on pregnancy intention and contraceptive use in high-HIV-burden southern African settings in the era of widespread antiretroviral treatment availability. Methods We analyzed interview data collected among 473 HIV-uninfected and 468 HIV-infected pregnant and recently postpartum women at two sites in...

Molecular characterisation of hepatitis B virus in HIV-1 subtype C infected patients in Botswana

Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health problem especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in East Asia. Ten hepatitis B virus genotypes have been described that differ by geographic distribution, disease progression, and response to treatment. Escape mutations within the surface open reading frame (ORF) affect HBV antigenicity leading to failures in diagnosis...

Immune Activation Markers in Peripartum Women in Botswana: Association with Feeding Strategy and Maternal Morbidity

Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D...

An Augmented SMS Intervention to Improve Access to Antenatal CD4 Testing and ART Initiation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: A Cluster Randomized Trial

Background Less than one-third of HIV-infected pregnant women eligible for combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally initiate treatment prior to delivery, with lack of access to timely CD4 results being a principal barrier. We evaluated the effectiveness of an SMS-based intervention to improve access to timely antenatal ART. Methods We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster...

Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral evolution in acute HIV-1 infection [1], [2] were applied. Specifically, phylogenetic reconstruction, inter- and intra-patient distribution of maximum and mean...

Phylogenetic Relatedness of Circulating HIV-1C Variants in Mochudi, Botswana

Background Determining patterns of HIV transmission is increasingly important for the most efficient use of modern prevention interventions. HIV phylogeny can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying HIV transmission networks in communities. Methods To reconstruct the structure and dynamics of a local HIV/AIDS epidemic, the phylogenetic relatedness of HIV-1...

Increased Risk of Preterm Delivery Among HIV-Infected Women Randomized to Protease Versus Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based HAART During Pregnancy

(See the editorial commentary by Kourtis, on pages 493–4.) Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in pregnancy has been associated with preterm deliveries in some observational studies. Methods. HIV-infected, HAART-naive pregnant women with CD4+ counts ≥200 cells/mm3 were randomized between 26 and 34 weeks gestation to lopinavir...

Serological Evidence of HIV-Associated Infection among HIV-1—Infected Adults in Botswana

In industrialized countries, it is recommended that adults with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection undergo baseline screening for pathogens that might cause latent or active infections, such as syphilis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, infection due to Toxoplasma gondii, and cytomegalovirus infection. A paucity of data exist from sub-Saharan Africa describing the...

Timing Constraints of In Vivo Gag Mutations during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

Background Aiming to answer the broad question “When does mutation occur?” this study examined the time of appearance, dominance, and completeness of in vivo Gag mutations in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection. Methods A primary HIV-1C infection cohort comprised of 8 acutely and 34 recently infected subjects were followed frequently up to 500 days post-seroconversion (p/s). Gag...

HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission

The first aim of the study is to assess the distribution of HIV-1 RNA levels in subtype C infection. Among 4,348 drug-naïve HIV-positive individuals participating in clinical studies in Botswana, the median baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels differed between the general population cohorts (4.1–4.2 log10) and cART-initiating cohorts (5.1–5.3 log10) by about one log10. The proportion...