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Precipitation strengthening in an ultralight magnesium alloy

Body-centred cubic magnesium-lithium-aluminium-base alloys are the lightest of all the structural alloys, with recently developed alloy compositions showing a unique multi-dimensional property profile. By hitherto unrecognised mechanisms, such alloys also exhibit exceptional immediate strengthening after solution treatment and water quenching, but strength eventually decreases...

Factors associated with blooms of cyanobacteria in a large shallow lake, China

BackgroundEutrophication of freshwater systems can result in blooms of phytoplankton, in many cases cyanobacteria. This can lead to shifts in structure and functions of phytoplankton communities adversely affecting the quality of drinking water sources, which in turn impairs public health. Relationships between structures of phytoplankton communities and concentrations of the...

Iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae as revealed by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy: In vivo iris ultrastructure in patients with Synechiae by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

Background Iris plays important roles in ocular physiology and disease pathogenesis. Currently it is technically challenging to noninvasively examine the human iris ultrastructure in vivo. The purpose of the current study is to reveal human iris ultrastructure in patients with synechiae by using noninvasive in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Methods The...

Profile Changes in the Soil Microbial Community When Desert Becomes Oasis

The conversion of virgin desert into oasis farmland creates two contrasting types of land-cover. During oasis formation with irrigation and fertilizer application, however, the changes in the soil microbial population, which play critical roles in the ecosystem, remain poorly understood. We applied high-throughput pyrosequencing to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities...

Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish

To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated...

Horseshoe Chaos in a 3D Neural Network with Different Activation Functions

This paper studies a small neural network with three neurons. First, the activation function takes the sign function. Although the network is a simple hybrid system with all subsystems being exponentially stable, we find that it can exhibit very complex dynamics such as limit cycles and chaos. Since the sign function is a limit case of sigmoidal functions, we find that chaos...

Horseshoe Chaos in a 3D Neural Network with Different Activation Functions

This paper studies a small neural network with three neurons. First, the activation function takes the sign function. Although the network is a simple hybrid system with all subsystems being exponentially stable, we find that it can exhibit very complex dynamics such as limit cycles and chaos. Since the sign function is a limit case of sigmoidal functions, we find that chaos...

Behavioural factors associated with diarrhea among adults over 18 years of age in Beijing, China

Background To date, a large proportion of people still suffer from diarrhea diseases. In addition to the burden of diarrhea, there are substantial social and economic costs caused by the high incidence of diarrheal diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the self-reported prevalence of diarrhea and associated risk factors of diarrhea among adults in Beijing...

Do corticosteroids reduce the mortality of influenza A (H1N1) infection? A meta-analysis

Introduction Corticosteroids are used empirically in influenza A (H1N1) treatment despite lack of clear evidence for effective treatment. This study aims to assess the efficacy of corticosteroids treatment for H1N1 infection. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis were used to estimate the efficacy of corticosteroids for the prevention of mortality in H1N1 infection...

Factors Associated with Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Self-Quarantined Patients in Beijing, China

As the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 progressed, the Ministry of Health of China advised cases with mild symptoms to remain home for isolation and observation, which may have increased the risk for infection among other household members. Describing the transmission characteristics of this novel virus is indispensable to effectively controlling the spread of disease; thus, the aim of this...

Evidence in favor of the contribution of genes involved in the maintenance of the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall to the development of intracranial aneurysms

Intracranial aneurysm is probably a complex disease with both genetic and non-genetic or environmental risk factors contributing to the etiology of the disease. A disruption of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the arterial wall is a likely factor in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms. We analyzed 44 potential candidate genes involved in the maintenance of the integrity...

Revealing biases inherent in recombination protocols

Background The recombination of homologous genes is an effective protein engineering tool to evolve proteins. DNA shuffling by gene fragmentation and reassembly has dominated the literature since its first publication, but this fragmentation-based method is labor intensive. Recently, a fragmentation-free PCR based protocol has been published, termed recombination-dependent PCR...

Apoptosis induced by diallyl disulfide in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

Bing-yang ZHU 0 Sheng- song TANG 0 Duan-fang LIAO 0 0 Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, College of Science and Technology, University of South China , Hengyang 421001 , China Aim: To investigate ... activation of the SAPK/JNK and p38 pathways. Author contribution Xiao-yong LEI designed research; Shu-qiong YAO, Ze-xiang HUANG, Li-juan LIU and Bing-yang ZHU performed research; Miao ZHONG, Sheng-song TANG