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A unified approach for including non-extractable residues (NER) of chemicals and pesticides in the assessment of persistence

All chemicals form non-extractable residues (NER) to various extents in environmental media like soil, sediment, plants and animals. NER can be quantified in environmental fate studies using isotope-labeled (such as 14C or 13C) tracer compounds. Previous NER definitions have led to a mismatch of legislation and state of knowledge in research: the residues are assumed to be either...

Vagal determinants of exercise capacity

information AffiliationsCentre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Neuroscience, Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UKAsif Machhada, Stefan Trapp, Nephtali ... . Ackland AuthorsSearch for Asif Machhada in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Stefan Trapp in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Nephtali Marina in:Nature

Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background...

Using pre-screening methods for an effective and reliable site characterization at megasites

This paper illustrates the usefulness of pre-screening methods for an effective characterization of polluted sites. We applied a sequence of site characterization methods to a former Soviet military airbase with likely fuel and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) contamination in shallow groundwater and subsoil. The methods were (i) phytoscreening with tree cores...

The Peutz-Jeghers kinase LKB1 suppresses polyp growth from intestinal cells of a proglucagon-expressing lineage in mice

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1; also known as STK11) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumour suppressor that is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), a premalignant syndrome associated with the development of gastrointestinal polyps. Proglucagon-expressing enteroendocrine cells are involved in the control of glucose homeostasis and the regulation of appetite through the secretion of...

CCK Stimulation of GLP-1 Neurons Involves α1-Adrenoceptor–Mediated Increase in Glutamatergic Synaptic Inputs

Kazunari Hisadome Frank Reimann Fiona M. Gribble Stefan Trapp OBJECTIVE-Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is involved in the central regulation of food intake. It is produced within the brain by

Identification and Characterization of GLP-1 Receptor–Expressing Cells Using a New Transgenic Mouse Model

GLP-1 is an intestinal hormone with widespread actions on metabolism. Therapies based on GLP-1 are highly effective because they increase glucose-dependent insulin secretion in people with type 2 diabetes, but many reports suggest that GLP-1 has additional beneficial or, in some cases, potentially dangerous actions on other tissues, including the heart, vasculature, exocrine...

Leptin Directly Depolarizes Preproglucagon Neurons in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius: Electrical Properties of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Neurons

OBJECTIVE Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 inhibits food intake, acting both in the periphery and within the central nervous system. It is unclear if gut-derived GLP-1 can enter the brain, or whether GLP-1 from preproglucagon (PPG) cells in the lower brainstem is required to activate central GLP-1 receptors. Brainstem PPG neurons, however, have been poorly characterized, due to the...

Simultaneous Simulations of Uptake in Plants and Leaching to Groundwater of Cadmium and Lead for Arable Land Amended with Compost or Farmyard Manure

The water budget of soil, the uptake in plants and the leaching to groundwater of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were simulated simultaneously using a physiological plant uptake model and a tipping buckets water and solute transport model for soil. Simulations were compared to results from a ten-year experimental field study, where four organic amendments were applied every second...

Identification of Novel Functional Inhibitors of Acid Sphingomyelinase

We describe a hitherto unknown feature for 27 small drug-like molecules, namely functional inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). These entities named FIASMAs (Functional Inhibitors of Acid SphingoMyelinAse), therefore, can be potentially used to treat diseases associated with enhanced activity of ASM, such as Alzheimer's disease, major depression, radiation- and chemotherapy...