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SMAD3 directly regulates cell cycle genes to maintain arrest in granulosa cells of mouse primordial follicles

Primordial follicles, consisting of granulosa cell (GC)-enveloped oocytes are maintained in a state of developmental arrest until activated to grow. The mechanism that operates to maintain this arrested state in GCs is currently unknown. Here, we show the TGFβ-activated transcription factor SMAD3 is expressed in primordial GC nuclei alongside the cell cycle proteins, cyclin D2...

Adiponectin and Its Receptors in the Ovary: Further Evidence for a Link between Obesity and Hyperandrogenism in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study...

Cyproterone acetate/ethinyl estradiol for acne and hirsutism: time to revise prescribing policy

Stephen Franks 2 Alison Layton 1 Anna Glasier 0 0 Lead Clinician for Sexual Health NHS Lothian and Honorary Professor, Universities of Edinburgh and London , 18 Dean Terrace, Edinburgh EH4 1NL , UK

BMI-Associated Alleles Do Not Constitute Risk Alleles for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Independently of BMI: A Case-Control Study

Introduction Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has a strong genetic background and the majority of patients with PCOS have elevated BMI levels. The aim of this study was to determine to which extent BMI-increasing alleles contribute to risk of PCOS when contemporaneous BMI is taken into consideration. Methods Patients with PCOS and controls were recruited from the United Kingdom...

Culture environment modulates maturation and metabolism of human oocytes

Ruth Roberts 0 Stephen Franks 0 Kate Hardy 0 0 Department of Reproductive Science and Medicine, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, The Wolfson and Weston

Luteal phase progesterone excretion in ovulatory women with polycystic ovaries

BACKGROUND: Various studies have reported a prevalence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) of ∼20% in the `normal' population. Our aim was to investigate the frequency of ovulation and pattern of luteal phase progesterone secretion in a group of women with PCO who reported regular cycles and in whom ovulation had been established on the basis of previous investigations. METHODS: Subjects...

Three-dimensional assessment of ultrasound features in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): ovarian stromal volume does not correlate with biochemical indices

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The syndrome is characterized by a combination of polycystic ovarian morphology, clinical features and biochemical indices. The objective of this prospective observational study was to investigate the relationship between the total ovarian volume and the...

Association of the Steroid Synthesis Gene Cyp11a with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hyperandrogenism

Biochemical data implicate an underlying disorder of androgen biosynthesis and/or metabolism in the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We have examined the segregation of the genes coding for two key enzymes in the synthesis and metabolism of androgens, cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11a) and aromatase (CYP19), with PCOS in 20 multiplyaffected families. All...