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Mechanical Tension Drives Elongational Growth of the Embryonic Gut

During embryonic development, most organs are in a state of mechanical compression because they grow in a confined and limited amount of space within the embryo’s body; the early gut is an exception because it physiologically herniates out of the coelom. We demonstrate here that physiological hernia is caused by a tensile force transmitted by the vitelline duct on the early gut...

How gluttonous cell aggregates clear substrates coated with microparticles

• PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Sylvie Dufour in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for Françoise M. Winnik in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google Scholar Search for

Demonstration of the Coexistence of Duplicated LH Receptors in Teleosts, and Their Origin in Ancestral Actinopterygians

Pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH, control gonad activity in vertebrates, via binding to their respective receptors, FSHR and LHR, members of GPCR superfamily. Until recently, it was accepted that gnathostomes possess a single FSHR and a single LHR, encoded by fshr and lhcgr genes. We reinvestigated this question, focusing on vertebrate species of key-phylogenetical positions...

Endothelin-3 stimulates cell adhesion and cooperates with β1-integrins during enteric nervous system ontogenesis

Heysch Viviane Baral Nad?ge Bondurand Sylvie Dufour OPEN Endothelin-3 (EDN3) and ?1-integrins are required for the colonization of the embryonic gut by enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) to form the

Multiple Thyrotropin β-Subunit and Thyrotropin Receptor-Related Genes Arose during Vertebrate Evolution

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify...

Duplicated Leptin Receptors in Two Species of Eel Bring New Insights into the Evolution of the Leptin System in Vertebrates

Since its discovery in mammals as a key-hormone in reproduction and metabolism, leptin has been identified in an increasing number of tetrapods and teleosts. Tetrapods possess only one leptin gene, while most teleosts possess two leptin genes, as a result of the teleost third whole genome duplication event (3R). Leptin acts through a specific receptor (LEPR). In the European and...

Looking for the bird Kiss: evolutionary scenario in sauropsids

Background The neuropeptide Kiss and its receptor KissR are key-actors in the brain control of reproduction in mammals, where they are responsible for the stimulation of the activity of GnRH neurones. Investigation in other vertebrates revealed up to 3 Kiss and 4 KissR paralogs, originating from the two rounds of whole genome duplication in early vertebrates. In contrast, the...

Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Promotes Increased Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis, Hyperlipidemia, and Hepatic Steatosis in the Elderly

Clare Flannery Sylvie Dufour Rasmus Rabl Gerald I. Shulman Kitt Falk Petersen Aging is closely associated with muscle insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD

Regulation of Apoptotic Mediators Reveals Dynamic Responses to Thermal Stress in the Reef Building Coral Acropora millepora

Background Mass coral bleaching is increasing in scale and frequency across the world's coral reefs and is being driven primarily by increased levels of thermal stress arising from global warming. In order to understand the impacts of projected climate change upon corals reefs, it is important to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms that operate during coral bleaching and...

Expression of Aromatase in Radial Glial Cells in the Brain of the Japanese Eel Provides Insight into the Evolution of the cyp191a Gene in Actinopterygians

The cyp19a1 gene that encodes aromatase, the only enzyme permitting conversion of C19 aromatizable androgens into estrogens, is present as a single copy in the genome of most vertebrate species, except in teleosts in which it has been duplicated. This study aimed at investigating the brain expression of a cyp19a1 gene expressed in both gonad and brain of Japanese eel, a basal...

β1 integrins are required for the invasion of the caecum and proximal hindgut by enteric neural crest cells

Marie A. Breau 1 Ahmed Dahmani Florence Broders-Bondon Jean-Paul Thiery 0 Sylvie Dufour ) 0 Present address: IMCB A 1 STAR , 61 Biopolis Drive , Singapore 138673 , Singapore Integrins are the major

Multiple Kisspeptin Receptors in Early Osteichthyans Provide New Insights into the Evolution of This Receptor Family

Deorphanization of GPR54 receptor a decade ago led to the characterization of the kisspeptin receptor (Kissr) in mammals and the discovery of its major role in the brain control of reproduction. While a single gene encodes for Kissr in eutherian mammals including human, other vertebrates present a variable number of Kissr genes, from none in birds, one or two in teleosts, to...

The Pituitary Gland of the European Eel Reveals Massive Expression of Genes Involved in the Melanocortin System

Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European...

Decreased Insulin-Stimulated ATP Synthesis and Phosphate Transport in Muscle of Insulin-Resistant Offspring of Type 2 Diabetic Parents

Insulin resistance in young lean individuals is associated with reduced phosphate transport into muscle cells and impaired mitochondrial energy generation in muscle.

Primitive Duplicate Hox Clusters in the European Eel's Genome

The enigmatic life cycle and elongated body of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L., 1758) have long motivated scientific enquiry. Recently, eel research has gained in urgency, as the population has dwindled to the point of critical endangerment. We have assembled a draft genome in order to facilitate advances in all provinces of eel biology. Here, we use the genome to...

Intrahepatic Fat Accumulation and Alterations in Lipoprotein Composition in Obese Adolescents: A perfect proatherogenic state


Reversal of Nonalcoholic Hepatic Steatosis, Hepatic Insulin Resistance, and Hyperglycemia by Moderate Weight Reduction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Kitt Falk Petersen Sylvie Dufour Douglas Befroy Michael Lehrke Rosa E. Hendler Gerald I. Shulman To examine the mechanism by which moderate weight reduction improves basal and insulin-stimulated

Impaired Mitochondrial Substrate Oxidation in Muscle of Insulin-Resistant Offspring of Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Douglas E. Befroy Kitt Falk Petersen Sylvie Dufour Graeme F. Mason Robin A. de Graaf Douglas L. Rothman Gerald I. Shulman Insulin resistance is the best predictor for the development of diabetes in