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The Zynga Clawback: Shoring up the Central Pillar of Innovation

By Thomas A. Smith, Published on 08/22/13 ... Clara L. Rev. 577 (2013). Available at: - THE ZYNGA CLAWBACK: SHORING UP THE CENTRAL PILLAR OF INNOVATION Thomas A. Smith* Silicon Valley isn’t a special place for invention and for startups because

The public health impact of malaria vaccine RTS,S in malaria endemic Africa: country-specific predictions using 18 month follow-up Phase III data and simulation models

Background The RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine candidate recently completed Phase III trials in 11 African sites. Recommendations for its deployment will partly depend on predictions of public health impact in endemic countries. Previous predictions of these used only limited information on underlying vaccine properties and have not considered country-specific contextual data. Methods...

Age-shifting in malaria incidence as a result of induced immunological deficit: a simulation study

Effective population-level interventions against Plasmodium falciparum malaria lead to age-shifts, delayed morbidity or rebounds in morbidity and mortality whenever they are deployed in ways that do not permanently interrupt transmission. When long-term intervention programmes target specific age-groups of human hosts, the age-specific morbidity rates ultimately adjust to new...

Relationship between child survival and malaria transmission: an analysis of the malaria transmission intensity and mortality burden across Africa (MTIMBA) project data in Rufiji demographic surveillance system, Tanzania

Background The precise nature of the relationship between malaria mortality and levels of transmission is unclear. Due to methodological limitations, earlier efforts to assess the linkage have lead to inconclusive results. The malaria transmission intensity and mortality burden across Africa (MTIMBA) project initiated by the INDEPTH Network collected longitudinally entomological...

Measurement of overall insecticidal effects in experimental hut trials

Background The ‘overall insecticidal effect’ is a key measure used to evaluate public health pesticides for indoor use in experimental hut trials. It depends on the proportion of mosquitoes that are killed out of those that enter the treated hut, intrinsic mortality in the control hut, and the ratio of mosquitoes entering the treatment hut to those entering the control hut. This...

Measurement of overall insecticidal effects in experimental hut trials

The ‘overall insecticidal effect’ is a key measure used to evaluate public health pesticides for indoor use in experimental hut trials. It depends on the proportion of mosquitoes that are killed out of those that enter the treated hut, intrinsic mortality in the control hut, and the ratio of mosquitoes entering the treatment hut to those entering the control hut. This paper...

Clustering of Vector Control Interventions Has Important Consequences for Their Effectiveness: A Modelling Study

publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have the following interests: Thomas A Smith is an Academic Editor for PLOS ONE. This does not alter the authors adherence to all

Importance of factors determining the effective lifetime of a mass, long-lasting, insecticidal net distribution: a sensitivity analysis

A Smith 0 1 0 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute , Basel , Switzerland 1 University of Basel , Basel , Switzerland Background: Long-lasting

Implementing new health interventions in developing countries: why do we lose a decade or more?

Background It is unclear how long it takes for health interventions to transition from research and development (R&D) to being used against diseases prevalent in resource-poor countries. We undertook an analysis of the time required to begin implementation of four vaccines and three malaria interventions. We evaluated five milestones for each intervention, and assessed if the...

A Novel Approach for Measuring the Burden of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: Application to Data from Zambia

. Smith 0 Steffen Borrmann, Kenya Medical Research Institute - Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kenya 0 1 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel

Applications and limitations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps for measuring biting densities of African malaria vector populations: a pooled-analysis of 13 comparisons with human landing catches

Aklilu Seyoum Chadwick H Sikaala Nicodem Govella Diadier A Diallo Salim Abdullah Thomas A Smith 0 Gerry F Killeen 0 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute

Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Malaria Control Interventions in the Highlands of Western Kenya

Introduction Tools that allow for in silico optimization of available malaria control strategies can assist the decision-making process for prioritizing interventions. The OpenMalaria stochastic simulation modeling platform can be applied to simulate the impact of interventions singly and in combination as implemented in Rachuonyo South District, western Kenya, to support this...

Micro-encapsulated pirimiphos-methyl shows high insecticidal efficacy and long residual activity against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in central Côte d’Ivoire

Background The wide-scale implementation of insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS) has contributed to a considerable decrease of malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa over the last decade. Due to increasing resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes to dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids, alternative insecticide...

Estimation of heterogeneity in malaria transmission by stochastic modelling of apparent deviations from mass action kinetics

Background Quantifying heterogeneity in malaria transmission is a prerequisite for accurate predictive mathematical models, but the variance in field measurements of exposure overestimates true micro-heterogeneity because it is inflated to an uncertain extent by sampling variation. Descriptions of field data also suggest that the rate of Plasmodium falciparum infection is not...

Modelling the cost-effectiveness of mass screening and treatment for reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria burden

Background Past experience and modelling suggest that, in most cases, mass treatment strategies are not likely to succeed in interrupting Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. However, this does not preclude their use to reduce disease burden. Mass screening and treatment (MSAT) is preferred to mass drug administration (MDA), as the latter involves massive over-use of drugs...

Simulated Impact of RTS,S/AS01 Vaccination Programs in the Context of Changing Malaria Transmission

Introduction The RTS,S/AS01 pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine is in phase III clinical trials. It is critical to anticipate where and how it should be implemented if trials are successful. Such planning may be complicated by changing levels of malaria transmission. Methods/results Computer simulations were used to examine RTS,S/AS01 impact, using a vaccine profile based on phase...

Measures of clinical malaria in field trials of interventions against Plasmodium falciparum

Background Standard methods for defining clinical malaria in intervention trials in endemic areas do not guarantee that efficacy estimates will be unbiased, and do not indicate whether the intervention has its effect by modifying the force of infection, the parasite density, or the risk of pathology at given parasite density. Methods Three different sets, each of 500 Phase IIb or...

MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence), but does not reveal its...