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Nanoscale imaging of untreated mammalian cells in a medium with low radiation damage using scanning electron-assisted dielectric microscopy

Imaging of untreated living cells in a medium at a nanometre-scale resolution under physiological conditions is a significant challenge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is widely used to observe cells in various atmospheric holders or special equipment. However, untreated biological specimens in aqueous solution generally incur heavy radiation damage from the direct electron...

Introducing Micrometer-Sized Artificial Objects into Live Cells: A Method for Cell–Giant Unilamellar Vesicle Electrofusion

-ichiro M. Nomura, and #23.3718 for Kei Fujiwara), and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology for Toshihiko Ogura. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis

Reconstruction and in vivo analysis of the extinct tbx5 gene from ancient wingless moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes)

Background The forelimb-specific gene tbx5 is highly conserved and essential for the development of forelimbs in zebrafish, mice, and humans. Amongst birds, a single order, Dinornithiformes, comprising the extinct wingless moa of New Zealand, are unique in having no skeletal evidence of forelimb-like structures. Results To determine the sequence of tbx5 in moa, we used a range of...

Direct Observation of Unstained Biological Specimens in Water by the Frequency Transmission Electric-Field Method Using SEM

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful tool for the direct visualization of biological specimens at nanometre-scale resolution. However, images of unstained specimens in water using an atmospheric holder exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Here, we present a new form of microscopy, the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method using SEM, that...

High-Contrast Observation of Unstained Proteins and Viruses by Scanning Electron Microscopy

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is an important tool for the nanometre-scale analysis of the various samples. Imaging of biological specimens can be difficult for two reasons: (1) Samples must often be left unstained to observe detail of the biological structures; however, lack of staining significantly decreases image contrast. (2) Samples are prone to serious radiation...

Three-Dimensional X-ray Observation of Atmospheric Biological Samples by Linear-Array Scanning-Electron Generation X-ray Microscope System

Recently, we developed a soft X-ray microscope called the scanning-electron generation X-ray microscope (SGXM), which consists of a simple X-ray detection system that detects X-rays emitted from the interaction between a scanning electron beam (EB) and the thin film of the sample mount. We present herein a three-dimensional (3D) X-ray detection system that is based on the SGXM...

Transdifferentiation of the retinal pigment epithelia to the neural retina by transfer of the Pax6 transcriptional factor

The Pax6 gene plays an important role in eye morphogenesis throughout the animal kingdom. The Pax6 gene and its homologue could form ectopic eyes by targeted expression in Drosophila and Xenopus. Thus, this gene is a master gene for the eye morphogenesis at least in these animals. In the early development of the vertebrate eye, Pax6 is required for the instruction of...

The Pax6 isoform bearing an alternative spliced exon promotes the development of the neural retinal structure

Toshihiko Ogura 4 Kenji Shimamura 3 8 Masato Nakafuku 3 7 0 Department of Biological Information, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology , Yokohama, 226-8501 , Japan 1

Early subdivisions in the neural plate define distinct competence for inductive signals

Daisuke Kobayashi Makoto Kobayashi Ken Matsumoto Toshihiko Ogura Masato Nakafuku Kenji Shimamura SUMMARY Regionalization of the embryonic brain is achieved through multi-step processes that operate