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Search: authors:"Valérie Briand"

21 papers found.
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Burden of Malaria in Early Pregnancy: A Neglected Problem?

According to the current World Health Organization guidelines, the drug prevention of malaria during pregnancy does not adequately cover the first trimester of gestation in high-transmission areas. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of early infections are not completely understood yet, a review of the most recent studies on the topic suggests that their consequences are...

Individual and institutional determinants of caesarean section in referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey

Background Two years after implementing the free-CS policy, we assessed the non-financial factors associated with caesarean section (CS) in women managed by referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey nested in a cluster trial (QUARITE trial) in 41 referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali (10/01/2007–10/01/2008). Data were collected...

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes by Mode of Delivery in Senegal and Mali: A Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey

Objective In the context of rapid changes regarding practices related to delivery in Africa, we assessed maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes associated with the mode of delivery in 41 referral hospitals of Mali and Senegal. Study Design Cross-sectional survey nested in a randomised cluster trial (1/10/2007–1/10/2008). The associations between intended mode of delivery and (i...

Mortality, Morbidity, and Developmental Outcomes in Infants Born to Women Who Received Either Mefloquine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

Background Little is known about the effects of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) on the health of sub-Saharan African infants. We have evaluated the safety of IPTp with mefloquine (MQ) compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for important infant health and developmental outcomes. Methods and Findings In the context of a multicenter randomized...

Consequences of Gestational Malaria on Birth Weight: Finding the Best Timeframe for Intermittent Preventive Treatment Administration

To investigate the consequences of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) timing on birth weight, we pooled data from two studies conducted in Benin between 2005 and 2010: a prospective cohort of 1037 pregnant women and a randomised trial comparing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to mefloquine in 1601 women. A total of 1439 women (752 in the cohort and 687 in the SP arm of the...

Molecular markers of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women in Benin

Background The prevention of malaria faces with the repeated emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to drugs, often involving point mutations of the target gene. In the pregnant woman, currently the WHO recommendation is the administration of an intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance has...

Efficacy of Intermittent Preventive Treatment versus Chloroquine Prophylaxis to Prevent Malaria during Pregnancy in Benin

Background. In West Africa, treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy has recently changed from chloroquine (CQ) prophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). We assessed the benefits of IPTp with respect to those of CQ, using a before-after study. Methods. CQ efficacy was evaluated during a cross-sectional survey conducted in Benin between April 2004...

Field evaluation of the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) in Benin: evolution of the coverage rate since its implementation

Background Malaria is an important public health problem in Africa. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and this disease can underlie an increased risk of low-birth weight newborns (< 2500 g); these women therefore need management during pregnancy. This was previously provided by chloroquine treatment, which, because of compliance problems and drug resistance, was replaced...

Malaria and gravidity interact to modify maternal haemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy

Background Primigravidity is one of the main risk factors for both malaria and anaemia. Since the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between anaemia and gravidity and its evolution during pregnancy has been little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gravidity on the variation of haemoglobin during...

Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during...

PARASITIC CO-INFECTIONS: DOES ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES PROTECT AGAINST PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM INFECTION?

A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996–1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in...

Plasmodium falciparum exposure in utero, maternal age and parity influence the innate activation of foetal antigen presenting cells

Background Malaria in pregnancy is associated with immunological abnormalities in the newborns, such as hampered T-helper 1 responses and increased T-regulatory responses, while the effect of maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection on foetal innate immunity is still controversial. Materials and methods The immunophenotype and cytokine release by dendritic cells (DC) and...

Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Negative Women: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial

Clara Menéndez and colleagues conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial in HIV-negative pregnant women in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique, and Tanzania to evaluate the safety and efficacy of mefloquine compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventative therapy for malaria. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

COINFECTION WITH PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM AND SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM: PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS ON MALARIA IN SENEGALESE CHILDREN?

Studies with animal models have suggested the possibility of interactions between parasites during concurrent infections and have raised the question of a similar phenomenon in humans. The present survey was undertaken to assess the impact of urinary schistosomiasis on the susceptibility of children to malaria. It was carried out in Senegal between September 2001 and March 2002...

Intermittent Treatment for the Prevention of Malaria during Pregnancy in Benin: A Randomized, Open-Label Equivalence Trial Comparing Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine with Mefloquine

BackgroundIn the context of the increasing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), we evaluated the efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) MethodsA multicenter, open-label equivalence trial was conducted in Benin from July 2005 through April 2008. Women of all gravidities were randomized to receive SP (1500 mg of...