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35 papers found.
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Setting Performance Standards for a Cost-Effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Strategy in South Africa

Reports of a single case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) eradication suggest that elimination of HIV from individuals is possible. Anticipating both increased research funding and the development of effective, durable cure technologies, we describe the circumstances under which a cure might improve survival and be cost-effective in South Africa.

Cryptococcal Antigen Screening in Patients Initiating ART in South Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study

Background. Retrospective data suggest that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in patients with late-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce cryptococcal disease and deaths. Prospective data are limited.

Characteristics and Early Outcomes of Patients With Xpert MTB/RIF-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Diagnosed During Screening Before Antiretroviral Therapy

Background. A proportion of patients with tuberculosis diagnosed by sputum culture during screening before antiretroviral therapy (ART) have false-negative Xpert MTB/RIF assay results (Xpert-negative tuberculosis). We determined the characteristics and early ART program outcomes of such patients.

Transmission Elasticity in Communities Hyperendemic for Tuberculosis

Backround. Despite consistently meeting international performance targets for tuberculosis case detection and treatment success, areas where tuberculosis is hyperendemic fail to achieve the predicted epidemiological impact. In this article, we explore the anomalous relationship between defined performance targets and actual reduction in tuberculosis transmission.

The Clinical and Economic Impact of Genotype Testing at First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Failure for HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa

Background. In resource-limited settings, genotype testing at virologic failure on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) may identify patients with wild-type (WT) virus. After adherence counseling, these patients may safely and effectively continue first-line ART, thereby delaying more expensive second-line ART.

An update to the HIV-TRePS system: the development and evaluation of new global and local computational models to predict HIV treatment outcomes, with or without a genotype

Optimizing antiretroviral drug combination on an individual basis in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotypic resistance testing. Here, we describe our latest computational models to predict treatment responses, with or without a genotype, and compare the potential utility of global and local models as a treatment tool...

Tuberculosis Transmission to Young Children in a South African Community: Modeling Household and Community Infection Risks

Background. Tuberculosis transmission is determined by contact between infectious and susceptible individuals. A recent study reported a 4% annual risk of child tuberculosis infection in a southern African township. A model was used to explore the interactions between prevalence of adult tuberculosis infection, adult-to-child contacts, and household ventilation, which could...