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Mechanisms of Resistance to Decitabine in the Myelodysplastic Syndrome

Purpose The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) is approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but resistance to DAC develops during treatment and mechanisms of resistance remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance to DAC in MDS. Patients and Methods We performed Quantitative Real-Time PCR to...

Interactions between HIV-1 Vif and human ElonginB-ElonginC are important for CBF-β binding to Vif

Background The HIV-1 accessory factor Vif is necessary for efficient viral infection in non-permissive cells. Vif antagonizes the antiviral activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3 proteins that confer the non-permissive phenotype by tethering them (APOBEC3DE/3F/3G) to the Vif-CBF-β-ElonginB-ElonginC-Cullin5-Rbx (Vif-CBF-β-EloB-EloC-Cul5-Rbx) E3 complex to induce their...

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the triglyceride-lowering component and in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis

Background In folklore, some people take the decoction of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis (CSFP) for lowering blood lipids. The present study is designed to evaluate the lipid-lowering activities of CSFP, and search for its pharmacodynamical material. Methods CSFP was extracted by water and 75% ethanol, respectively. The extracts of CSFP for reducing serum lipid levels were evaluated...

Polarity Changes in the Transmembrane Domain Core of HIV-1 Vpu Inhibits Its Anti-Tetherin Activity

Tetherin (BST-2/CD317) is an interferon-inducible antiviral protein that restricts the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu can efficiently antagonize this restriction. In this study, we analyzed mutations of the transmembrane (TM) domain of Vpu, including deletions and substitutions, to delineate amino acids important for HIV-1 viral...

Characterization and Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Response to Acute Salinity Stress in the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis

Background Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme for the synthesis and catabolism of glutamic acid, proline and alanine, which are important osmolytes in aquatic animals. However, the response of GDH gene expression to salinity alterations has not yet been determined in macro-crustacean species. Methodology/Principal Findings GDH cDNA was isolated from Eriocheir sinensis...

Epitope Tags beside the N-Terminal Cytoplasmic Tail of Human BST-2 Alter Its Intracellular Trafficking and HIV-1 Restriction

BST-2 blocks the particle release of various enveloped viruses including HIV-1, and this antiviral activity is dependent on the topological arrangement of its four structural domains. Several functions of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of BST-2 have been previously discussed, but the exact role of this domain remains to be clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the impact of...

Design and immunogenicity assessment of HIV-1 virus-like particles as a candidate vaccine

The rapid growth of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic makes it a high priority to develop an effective vaccine. Since a live attenuated or inactivated HIV vaccine is not likely to be approved for clinical application due to safety concerns, HIV virus like particles (VLPs) offer an attractive alternative because they are considered safer since they lack viral genome. We got a stable...

Role of cullin-elonginB-elonginC E3 complex in bovine immunodeficiency virus and maedi-visna virus Vif-mediated degradation of host A3Z2-Z3 proteins

Background All lentiviruses except equine infectious anemia virus (EIVA) antagonize antiviral family APOBEC3 (A3) proteins of the host through viral Vif proteins. The mechanism by which Vif of human, simian or feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV/FIV) suppresses the corresponding host A3s has been studied extensively. Results Here, we determined that bovine immunodeficiency...

Epigenetic synergy between decitabine and platinum derivatives

Background Aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes has been recognized as a driving force in cancer. Epigenetic drugs such as the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine reactivate genes and are effective in myeloid leukemia, but resistance often develops and efficacy in solid tumors is limited. To improve their clinical efficacy, we searched among approved anti...

Biomass Partitioning and Its Relationship with the Environmental Factors at the Alpine Steppe in Northern Tibet

Alpine steppe is considered to be the largest grassland type on the Tibetan Plateau. This grassland contributes to the global carbon cycle and is sensitive to climate changes. The allocation of biomass in an ecosystem affects plant growth and the overall functioning of the ecosystem. However, the mechanism by which plant biomass is allocated on the alpine steppe remains unclear...

Responses of Soil CO2 Fluxes to Short-Term Experimental Warming in Alpine Steppe Ecosystem, Northern Tibet

Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission is one of the largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. Therefore small changes in the size of this flux can have a large effect on atmospheric CO2 concentrations and potentially constitute a powerful positive feedback to the climate system. Soil CO2 fluxes in the alpine steppe ecosystem of Northern Tibet and their responses to short-term...

Transcriptome Profiling and Molecular Pathway Analysis of Genes in Association with Salinity Adaptation in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is a freshwater fish but can tolerate a wide range of salinities. The mechanism of salinity adaptation at the molecular level was studied using RNA-Seq to explore the molecular pathways in fish exposed to 0, 8, or 16 (practical salinity unit, psu). Based on the change of gene expressions, the differential genes unions from freshwater to saline...

Molecular Characterization and Viral Origin of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

Luo Zhiqiang Ma Xiaodan Wang Yue Pan Junying Chen Juemin Xi JiajiaYang Lijuan Qiu Chunhai Bai Liming Jiang Xiyun Shan Qiangming Sun OPEN A total of 1067 serum samples were collected from febrile

Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress

The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability...

Effects of Grazing Regimes on Plant Traits and Soil Nutrients in an Alpine Steppe, Northern Tibetan Plateau

Understanding the impact of grazing intensity on grassland production and soil fertility is of fundamental importance for grassland conservation and management. We thus compared three types of alpine steppe management by studying vegetation traits and soil properties in response to three levels of grazing pressure: permanent grazing (M1), seasonal grazing (M2), and grazing...

Prevalence of primary headache disorders in a population aged 60 years and older in a rural area of Northern China

Background Primary headache disorders are among the most common neurological complaints worldwide, and are significant causes of disability. Data are limited on the prevalence of primary headaches among individuals aged 60 years and older in China. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of primary headaches among people aged 60 years and...

Stoichiometry of Root and Leaf Nitrogen and Phosphorus in a Dry Alpine Steppe on the Northern Tibetan Plateau

Leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have been used widely in the ecological stoichiometry to understand nutrient limitation in plant. However,few studies have focused on the relationship between root nutrients and environmental factors. The main objective of this study was to clarify the pattern of root and leaf N and P concentrations and the relationships between plant nitrogen...

Infinitely many solutions for a fourth-order differential equation on a nonlinear elastic foundation

In this paper, existence results of infinitely many solutions for a fourth-order differential equation with nonlinear boundary conditions are established. The proof is based on variational methods. Some recent results are improved and extended.

Impact of atmospheric and oceanic conditions on the frequency and genesis location of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific in 2004 and 2010

This study examines the impact of atmospheric and oceanic conditions during May–August of 2004 and 2010 on the frequency and genesis location of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific. Using the WRF model, four numerical experiments were carried out based on different atmospheric conditions and SST forcing. The numerical experiments indicated that changes in atmospheric...

Folic acid-functionalized drug delivery platform of resveratrol based on Pluronic 127/D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate mixed micelles

Zhuang, Te Han, Yanping Bi, Jianzhu Wang, Xiaodan Wang College of Pharmacy, Taishan Medical University, Taian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A folic