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15 papers found.
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Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for 1-Bromopropane in F344 Rats Using Gas Uptake Inhalation Experiments

Yu 0 0 Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Public Health, University of Georgia , Athens, Georgia 30602 1 Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute , Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 1

Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these...

Occupational Health Hazards among Healthcare Workers in Kampala, Uganda

Objective. To assess the occupational health hazards faced by healthcare workers and the mitigation measures. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing quantitative data collection methods among 200 respondents who worked in 8 major health facilities in Kampala. Results. Overall, 50.0% of respondents reported experiencing an occupational health hazard. Among these...

Cadmium-induced Activation of Stress Signaling Pathways, Disruption of Ubiquitin-dependent Protein Degradation and Apoptosis in Primary Rat Sertoli Cell-Gonocyte Cocultures

Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that has been associated with male reproductive toxicity in both humans and animal models. The underlying mechanism of this response, however, is still uncharacterized. To address this issue, we employed a recently developed and optimized three-dimensional primary Sertoli cell-gonocyte coculture system and examined the time...

Cadmium Induced p53-Dependent Activation of Stress Signaling, Accumulation of Ubiquitinated Proteins, and Apoptosis in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cells

The tumor suppressor oncoprotein, p53, is a critical regulator of stress-induced growth arrest and apoptosis. p53 activity is regulated through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) with stress-induced disruption leading to increased accumulation of p53, resulting in growth arrest. In the present study, we investigate the role of p53 to determine sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) and...

A System-Based Comparison of Gene Expression Reveals Alterations in Oxidative Stress, Disruption of Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Altered Cell Cycle Regulation after Exposure to Cadmium and Methylmercury in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast

Environmental and occupational exposures to heavy metals such as methylmercury (MeHg) and cadmium (Cd) pose significant health risks to humans, including neurotoxicity. The underlying mechanisms of their toxicity, however, remain to be fully characterized. Our previous studies with Cd and MeHg have demonstrated that the perturbation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was...

Cadmium-Induced Differential Toxicogenomic Response in Resistant and Sensitive Mouse Strains Undergoing Neurulation

Common inbred mouse strains, such as the C57BL/6 (C57) and the SWV, display differences in sensitivity to environmental teratogens during gestation. For example, the C57 is more sensitive than the SWV to cadmium (Cd) exposure during neurulation, inducing a higher incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Here, we report, using Cd as a model teratogen, the first large scale...

Essential Role of Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Overlay in Establishing the Functional Integrity of Primary Neonatal Rat Sertoli Cell/Gonocyte Co-cultures: An Improved In Vitro Model for Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity

The development of in vitro models for testicular toxicity may provide important tools for investigating specific mechanisms of toxicity in the testis. Although various systems have been reported, their application in toxicological studies has been limited by the poor ability to replicate the complex biochemical, molecular, and functional interactions observed in the testis. In...

The Glutathione Synthesis Gene Gclm Modulates Amphiphilic Polymer-Coated CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot–Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

Quantum dots (QDs) are unique semi-conductor fluorescent nanoparticles with potential uses in a variety of biomedical applications. However, concerns exist regarding their potential toxicity, specifically their capacity to induce oxidative stress and inflammation. In this study we synthesized CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs with a tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1...

A System-Based Approach to Interpret Dose- and Time-Dependent Microarray Data: Quantitative Integration of Gene Ontology Analysis for Risk Assessment

Although microarray technology has emerged as a powerful tool to explore expression levels of thousands of genes or even complete genomes after exposure to toxicants, the functional interpretation of microarray data sets still represents a time-consuming and challenging task. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway mapping have both been shown to be powerful approaches to generate a...

Cell Cycle Inhibition by Sodium Arsenite in Primary Embryonic Rat Midbrain Neuroepithelial Cells

Arsenite (As3+) exposure during development has been associated with neural tube defects and other structural malformations, and with behavioral alterations including altered locomotor activity and operant learning. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are uncertain. Because arsenic can cross the placenta and accumulate in the developing neuroepithelium, we examined...

Exposure to 1-Bromopropane Causes Ovarian Dysfunction in Rats

Although 1-bromopropane has been used in chemical and electronic industries as an alternative to ozone layer-depleting solvents, its toxicity on female reproductive organs has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of 1-bromopropane on female reproductive function in rats. Forty female Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups...

1-Bromopropane, an Alternative to Ozone Layer Depleting Solvents, Is Dose-Dependently Neurotoxic to Rats in Long-Term Inhalation Exposure

1-Bromopropane has been newly introduced as an alternative to ozone layer-depleting solvents. We aimed to clarify the dose-dependent effects of 1-bromopropane on the nervous system. Forty-four Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 11 each. The groups were exposed to 200, 400, or 800 ppm of 1-bromopropane or only fresh air 8 h per day for 12 weeks. Grip strength...

Biochemical Changes in the Central Nervous System of Rats Exposed to 1-Bromopropane for Seven Days

1-Bromopropane is used widely as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. The neurotoxic effects of this agent have been described in humans and experimental animals. Here we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the neurotoxic effects of 1-bromopropane by examining the initial biochemical changes in the central nervous system. Four groups of 9 Wistar male rats each were...

Reproductive Toxicity of 1-Bromopropane, a Newly Introduced Alternative to Ozone Layer Depleting Solvents, in Male Rats

1-Bromopropane has been newly introduced as an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents. We aimed to clarify its dose-dependent reproductive toxicity in male rats. Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 9. The groups were exposed to 200, 400, or 800 ppm 1-bromopropane or only fresh air, 8 h per day for 12 weeks. Epididymal sperm indices were evaluated...