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Retraction Note to: Juvenile-onset myasthenia gravis: autoantibody status, clinical characteristics and genetic polymorphisms

-Xian Yue, Xu Zhang, Hai-Feng Li and Nils Erik Gilhus disagree with this retraction. Fredrik Romi has not responded to correspondence about this retraction. Reference 1. Hong Y, Skeie GO, Zisimopoulou

Hedgehog signaling in bone regulates whole-body energy metabolism through a bone‚Äďadipose endocrine relay mediated by PTHrP and adiponectin

Bone plays a role in energy metabolism, but the interplay between bone and other organs in this process is not completely understood. Here, we show that upregulated Hh signaling in bones results in increased whole-body energy expenditure, white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, hypoglycemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that Hh signaling induces PTHrP secretion from bones...

A male pheromone-mediated trade-off between female preferences for genetic compatibility and sexual attractiveness in rats

Introduction Chemosensory signals play a vital role in socio-sexual interactions of rodents. Females rely heavily on chemosensory signals to evaluate genetic similarity and quality of potential mates, but their olfactory preferences for these criteria often conflict in mate choice. Results Using two inbred strains of rats, Brown Norway (BB) and Lewis (LL) and their F1 reciprocal...

Facilitation of Synaptic Transmission in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Viscerally Hypersensitive Rats

Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal circuitry. Activity-dependent...

Impairment of cognitive function by chemotherapy: association with the disruption of phase-locking and synchronization in anterior cingulate cortex

Background Patients following prolonged cancer chemotherapy are at high risk of emotional and cognitive deficits. Research indicates that the brain neuronal temporal coding and synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) are critical in memory and perception. We studied the effects of cisplatin on induction of LTP in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC...

Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is...

Urine-Derived Key Volatiles May Signal Genetic Relatedness in Male Rats

Olfactory cues play a vital role in kin recognition and mate choice of the rat. Here, using 2 inbred strains of rats, Brown Norway (BN) and Lewis, as models to simulate kinship via genetic distance, we examined whether urine-derived volatiles are genetically determined, and, if so, how they code for olfactory information and the degree of genetic relatedness in mate choice...

Vandetanib (Zactima, ZD6474) Antagonizes ABCC1- and ABCG2-Mediated Multidrug Resistance by Inhibition of Their Transport Function

Background ABCC1 and ABCG2 are ubiquitous ATP-binding cassette transmembrane proteins that play an important role in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we evaluated the possible interaction of vandetanib, an orally administered drug inhibiting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, with ABCC1 and ABCG2 in vitro. Methodology and Principal Findings MDR cancer cells...