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Clock-Drawing in Neurological Disorders

Clock-drawing is a widely used bedside test of constructional ability, but it has never been systematically studied or standardized. We examined 87 clocks drawn by neurologically impaired patients and age-matched controls, and propose a set of criteria for scoring clocks. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and other dementias have gross impairments in clock-drawing. These...

Utility of the Dependence Scale in dementia: validity, meaningfulness, and health economic considerations

BackgroundThe concept of dependence has been proposed as a unified representation of disease severity to quantify and stage disease progression in a manner more informative to patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers.MethodsThis paper provides a review of the Dependence Scale (DS) as a quantitative measure of Alzheimer’s disease severity, its properties as an outcome...

Clock-Drawing in Neurological Disorders

Clock-drawing is a widely used bedside test of constructional ability, but it has never been systematically studied or standardized. We examined 87 clocks drawn by neurologically impaired patients and age-matched controls, and propose a set of criteria for scoring clocks. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and other dementias have gross impairments in clock-drawing. These...

Personalized predictive modeling for patients with Alzheimer’s disease using an extension of Sullivan’s life table model

BackgroundAlzheimer’s disease (AD) progression varies substantially among patients, hindering calculation of residual total life expectancy (TLE) and its decomposition into disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and disabled life expectancy (DLE) for individual patients with AD. The objective of the present study was to assess the accuracy of a new synthesis of Sullivan’s life...

The Role of Education and Verbal Abilities in Altering the Effect of Age-Related Gray Matter Differences on Cognition

Evidence suggests that individual variability in lifetime exposures influences how cognitive performance changes with advancing age. Brain maintenance and cognitive reserve are theories meant to account for preserved performance despite advancing age. These theories differ in their causal mechanisms. Brain maintenance predicts more advantageous lifetime exposures will reduce age...

Age-Related Changes in Task Related Functional Network Connectivity

Aging has a multi-faceted impact on brain structure, brain function and cognitive task performance, but the interaction of these different age-related changes is largely unexplored. We hypothesize that age-related structural changes alter the functional connectivity within the brain, resulting in altered task performance during cognitive challenges. In this neuroimaging study, we...

Cognitive Declines Precede and Predict Functional Declines in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

ObjectiveTo investigate the temporal ordering of cognitive and functional declines separately in older adults with or without Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design and SettingA community-based longitudinal study of aging and dementia in Northern Manhattan (Washington Heights/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project) and a multicenter, clinic-based longitudinal study of prevalent...

Promising developments in neuropsychological approaches for the detection of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: a selective review

Recently published guidelines suggest that the most opportune time to treat individuals with Alzheimer’s disease is during the preclinical phase of the disease. This is a phase when individuals are defined as clinically normal but exhibit evidence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration and subtle cognitive/behavioral decline. While our standard cognitive tests are useful for detecting...

Promising developments in neuropsychological approaches for the detection of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: a selective review

Recently published guidelines suggest that the most opportune time to treat individuals with Alzheimer’s disease is during the preclinical phase of the disease. This is a phase when individuals are defined as clinically normal but exhibit evidence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration and subtle cognitive/behavioral decline. While our standard cognitive tests are useful for detecting...

Short-term and long-term collaboration benefits on individual recall in younger and older adults

Helena M. Blumen Yaakov Stern A recent study of younger adults suggests that, compared to repeated individual recall trials, repeated collaborative recall trials produce better individual recall

Brain Amyloid Deposition and Longitudinal Cognitive Decline in Nondemented Older Subjects: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population

Objective We aimed to whether the abnormally high amyloid-β (Aβ) level in the brain among apparently healthy elders is related with subtle cognitive deficits and/or accelerated cognitive decline. Methods A total of 116 dementia-free participants (mean age 84.5 years) of the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed 18F-Florbetaben PET imaging. Positive or...

Bias effects in the possible/impossible object decision test with matching objects

ANJA SOLDAN 0 H. JOHN HILTON 0 YAAKOV STERN 0 0 Columbia University Medical Center , New York, New York In the possible/impossible object decision test, priming has consistently been found for

A Two-Study Comparison of Clinical and MRI Markers of Transition from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease

Stern,2 and Gregory H. Pelton1 1Division of Geriatric Psychiatry and New York State Psychiatric Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 126, New

A Two-Study Comparison of Clinical and MRI Markers of Transition from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease

Stern,2 and Gregory H. Pelton1 1Division of Geriatric Psychiatry and New York State Psychiatric Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 126, New

Age-related differences in executive control of working memory

In two experiments, we used dual-task methodology to assess the effect of aging on executive control of working memory. We hypothesized that (1) age-related dual-task costs would be observed even when individual tasks represent different perceptual modalities; (2) age would modulate the effect of increased temporal overlap on dual-task performance; and (3) the vulnerability of...

Volumetric Correlates of Spatiotemporal Working and Recognition Memory Impairment in Aged Rhesus Monkeys

Spatiotemporal and recognition memory are affected by aging in humans and macaque monkeys. To investigate whether these deficits are coupled with atrophy of memory-related brain regions, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and volumes of the cerebrum, ventricles, prefrontal cortex (PFC), calcarine cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were quantified in young and aged...

Positive Evidence against Human Hippocampal Involvement in Working Memory Maintenance of Familiar Stimuli

Subjects (n = 40) performed a delayed item recognition task for visually presented letters with three set sizes (1, 3 or 6 letters). Accuracy was close to ceiling at all set sizes, so we took set size as a proxy for WM load (i.e. the amount of information being maintained in WM). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal associated with the delay period increased in a...

A Common Neural Network for Cognitive Reserve in Verbal and Object Working Memory in Young but not Old

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cognitive reserve (CR) mitigates the effects of aging on cognitive function. The goal of this study was to see whether a common neural mechanism for CR could be demonstrated in brain imaging data acquired during the performance of 2 tasks with differing cognitive processing demands. Young and elder subjects were scanned with functional...

The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Diverse Geographical and Ethnocultural Regions: The COSMIC Collaboration

Background Changes in criteria and differences in populations studied and methodology have produced a wide range of prevalence estimates for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods Uniform criteria were applied to harmonized data from 11 studies from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia, and MCI prevalence estimates determined using three separate definitions of cognitive impairment...

Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia with Stroke in a Multiethnic Cohort

Jose A. Luchsinger Ming-Xin Tang Yaakov Stern Steven Shea Richard Mayeux Research on the relation between diabetes mellitus and dementia has produced conflicting results, and the relation has not