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Mercury spikes suggest volcanic driver of the Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction

The second largest Phanerozoic mass extinction occurred at the Ordovician-Silurian (O-S) boundary. However, unlike the other major mass extinction events, the driver for the O-S extinction remains uncertain. The abundance of mercury (Hg) and total organic carbon (TOC) of Ordovician and early Silurian marine sediments were analyzed from four sections (Huanghuachang, Chenjiahe...

Defining natural species of bacteria: clear-cut genomic boundaries revealed by a turning point in nucleotide sequence divergence

Background Bacteria are currently classified into arbitrary species, but whether they actually exist as discrete natural species was unclear. To reveal genomic features that may unambiguously group bacteria into discrete genetic clusters, we carried out systematic genomic comparisons among representative bacteria. Results We found that bacteria of Salmonella formed tight...

Patterns of intravenous fluid resuscitation use in adult intensive care patients between 2007 and 2014: An international cross-sectional study

Background In 2007, the Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation—Translation of Research Into Practice Study (SAFE-TRIPS) reported that 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) were the most commonly used resuscitation fluids in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Evidence has emerged since 2007 that these fluids are associated with adverse patient-centred...

Pyrosequencing Dried Blood Spots Reveals Differences in HIV Drug Resistance between Treatment Naïve and Experienced Patients

Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative specimen collection format for HIV-1 genotyping. DBS produce HIV genotyping results that are robust and equivalent to plasma when using conventional sequencing methods. However, using tagged, pooled pyrosequencing, we demonstrate that concordance between plasma and DBS is not absolute and varies according to viral load (VL), duration of...

Differential efficiency in exogenous DNA acquisition among closely related Salmonella strains: implications in bacterial speciation

Background Acquisition of exogenous genetic material is a key event in bacterial speciation. It seems reasonable to assume that recombination of the incoming DNA into genome would be more efficient with higher levels of relatedness between the DNA donor and recipient. If so, bacterial speciation would be a smooth process, leading to a continuous spectrum of genomic divergence of...

Combined Strategy of Endothelial Cells Coating, Sertoli Cells Coculture and Infusion Improves Vascularization and Rejection Protection of Islet Graft

Improving islet graft revascularization and inhibiting rejection become crucial tasks for prolonging islet graft survival. Endothelial cells (ECs) are the basis of islet vascularization and Sertoli cells (SCs) have the talent to provide nutritional support and exert immunosuppressive effects. We construct a combined strategy of ECs coating in the presence of nutritious and immune...

HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Using Pooled Pyrosequencing

Background Surveillance for HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is performed using HIV genotype results from individual specimens. Pyrosequencing, through its massive parallel sequencing ability, can analyze large numbers of specimens simultaneously. Instead of using pyrosequencing conventionally, to sequence a population of viruses within an individual, we interrogated a...

Involvement of the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway in progression of colon adenocarcinoma

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) signaling pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in cell growth, cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Analysis of several colon adenocarcinoma cell lines indicates that the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway is up-regulated in colon cancers. In particular, the protein levels...

Psoriasis Regression Analysis of MHC Loci Identifies Shared Genetic Variants with Vitiligo

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with genetic components of both immune system and the epidermis. PSOR1 locus (6q21) has been strongly associated with psoriasis; however, it is difficult to identify additional independent association due to strong linkage disequilibrium in the MHC region. We performed stepwise regression analyses of more than 3,000 SNPs in the MHC...

The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage

Background We describe the genome of the western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii, one of the most widespread, abundant, and well-studied turtles. We place the genome into a comparative evolutionary context, and focus on genomic features associated with tooth loss, immune function, longevity, sex differentiation and determination, and the species' physiological capacities...