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Hydrophobic residues are critical for the helix-forming, hemolytic and bactericidal activities of amphipathic antimicrobial peptide TP4

a grant from Academia Sinica and Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (105-0210-0113-01). Data curation: Chinpan Chen, You-Di Liao. Formal analysis: Ting-Wei Chang, Shu-Yi Wei, Shih-Han Wang ... , Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Chiu-Feng Wang. Funding acquisition: Chinpan Chen, You-Di Liao. Investigation: Ting-Wei Chang, Shu-Yi Wei, Shih-Han Wang, Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Chiu-Feng Wang

Antimicrobial Properties of an Immunomodulator - 15 kDa Human Granulysin

Granulysin, a cationic protein expressed by human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is a mediator for drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and graft-versus-host disease. Some 15 kDa granulysin are processed into 9 kDa forms and sequestered in cytolytic granules, while others are constitutively secreted into body fluids. Both 9 and 15 kDa granulysin have been...

Sarkosyl-Induced Helical Structure of an Antimicrobial Peptide GW-Q6 Plays an Essential Role in the Binding of Surface Receptor OprI in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains has become a public health issue and there is an urgent need to develop new anti-infective molecules. Although natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can exert bactericidal activities, they have not shown clinical efficacy. The limitations of native peptides may be overcome with rational design and synthesis. Here, we provide...

Identification of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide from Human Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Arginine-Rich Domain (ARD)

The rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens causes an increasing challenge to public health. Antimicrobial peptides are considered a possible solution to this problem. HBV core protein (HBc) contains an arginine-rich domain (ARD) at its C-terminus, which consists of 16 arginine residues separated into four clusters (ARD I to IV). In this study, we demonstrated that the...

A pyrimidine-guanine sequence-specific ribonuclease from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) oocytes

A pyrimidine-guanine sequence-specific ribonuclease (RC-RNase) was purified from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog) oocytes by sequential phosphocellulose, Sephadex G75, heparin Sepharose CL 6B and CM-Sepharose CL 6B column chromatography. The purified enzyme with molecular weight of 13,000 daltons gave a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel. One CNBr-cleaved fragment has a sequence of...

Regulation of ribonuclease expression by estradiol in Rana catesbeiana (Bullfrog)

Multiple ribonucleases are widely found in living organisms, but the function and regulation of individual ribonucleases are still not clear. In the present study, we found that one oocytic ribonuclease, RC‐RNase, is developmentally expressed in the liver and stored in the oocyte of the bullfrog, while another ribonuclease, RC‐RNase L1, is constitutively expressed and retained in...

The structural integrity exerted by N‐terminal pyroglutamate is crucial for the cytotoxicity of frog ribonuclease from Rana pipiens

Onconase, a cytotoxic ribonuclease from Rana pipiens, possesses pyroglutamate (Pyr) at the N‐terminus and has a substrate preference for uridine–guanine (UG). To identify residues responsible for onconase’s cytotoxicity, we cloned the rpr gene from genomic DNA and expressed it in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant onconase with Met at the N‐terminus had reduced...

Purification and cloning of cytotoxic ribonucleases from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog)

Ribonucleases with antitumor activity are mainly found in the oocytes and embryos of frogs, but the role of these ribonucleases in frog development is not clear. Moreover, most frog ribonuclease genes have not been cloned and characterized. In the present study, a group of ribonucleases were isolated from Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). These ribonucleases in mature oocytes, namely...