Forestry

http://forestry.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 860)

Suitability of close-to-nature silviculture for adapting temperate European forests to climate change

In many parts of Europe, close-to-nature silviculture (CNS) has been widely advocated as being the best approach for managing forests to cope with future climate change. In this review, we identify and evaluate six principles for enhancing the adaptive capacity of European temperate forests in a changing climate: (1) increase tree species richness, (2) increase structural ...

Pot experiments with woody species – a review

Pot experiments, as a complement to field measurements, allow the investigation of plants under controlled conditions without distracting effects of heterogeneous environmental factors. Due to the longevity and larger dimensions of tree species, pot experiments with trees raise more problems than studies with herbaceous plants. We analysed 93 studies on pot experiments with woody ...

An integrated approach to control the introduced forest pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare in Europe

The North American fungal pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare is currently distributed in pine and oak stands along 103 km of coastline west of Rome, Italy. This paper reviews and expands the knowledge on impacts, pathways of introduction and invasion, factors driving the invasion and on the dispersal abilities of this pathogen in Italy. Further, an integrated disease management ...

Modelling vertical allocation of tree stem and branch volume for hardwoods

Whole-tree volume equations are in great demand due to the need to quantify the distribution of wood volume within trees for estimating whole-tree utilization potential. While main stem volume has been extensively studied, related to computing the merchantable timber volume of trees, the relative volume of branches has received much less attention. It is particularly challenging to ...

Models for predicting wood density variation in Scots pine

Because wood density is an important indicator of the end-use mechanical properties of sawn timber, detailed knowledge of its variation is important for optimizing value in processing. The aim of this study was to develop a model for predicting wood density variation in plantation-grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using position in the stem and radial growth increment as ...

Wood density and tracheid properties of Scots pine: responses to repeated fertilization and timing of the first commercial thinning

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fertilization and thinning on the growth rate and wood and tracheid properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in southern Finland. The study was based on two long-term experiments with two fertilization treatments (unfertilized and 150 kg N ha−1 every 5 years) and two thinning levels (delayed and intensive first commercial ...

Effects of pruning in Norway spruce on tree growth and grading of sawn boards in Finland

In Finland, pruning of Norway spruce has recently gained increasing interest, in spite of the past negative results associated with fungal infections. The aim of the study was to compare the growth of pruned and unpruned Norway spruce and to determine the effects of pruning on the defects in wood and visual grade distribution of the sawn boards. The material consisted of 60 pruned ...

New approaches to modelling cross-sectional area to height allometry in four Mediterranean pine species

Crown dynamics affect tree cross-sectional growth by responding to individual traits and stand history and features, i.e. species, stocking, thinning, site quality or climatic conditions. Under this assumption we analysed two simple models that relate cross-sectional growth to the growth of stem length above the cross section in four species of Mediterranean pines. Cross-sectional ...

Balancing horizontal accuracy and data collection efficiency with mapping-grade GPS receivers

We used mapping-grade global positioning system (GPS) receivers to examine post-processed horizontal measurement accuracies during nine separate visits to six sites that each contained 10 test points within a second-growth Douglas-fir forest. Our primary objective was to compare GPS accuracies resulting from two different receiver configurations that vary in productivity and ...

Mitigating the effects of climate change on lodgepole pine site height in British Columbia, Canada, with a transfer function

Provenance trials provide an opportunity to develop transfer functions that can be used to assess the effects of climate change on tree growth. A transfer function is available for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) in British Columbia, Canada, that predicts relative height (site height of a population divided by the site height of the local population) as a function of ...

Social impacts of forest policy changes in Western Australia on members of the natural forest industry: implications for policy goals and decision-making processes

In many countries, timber harvesting from natural forests is accompanied by social conflict that governments seek to mitigate, often through the introduction of policy changes that reduce the forest industry's access to natural forest wood. Forest policy changes often have important implications for businesses and workers dependent on forest resources; however, the social impacts ...

Crown fire potential in lodgepole pine forests during the red stage of mountain pine beetle attack

Mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreaks within the previous 10–15 years have affected millions of hectares of lodgepole pine forests in western North America. Concerns about the influence of recent tree mortality on changes in fire behaviour amongst firefighters and fire managers have led researchers to attempt to quantify the effects on crown fire potential. In this paper we provide ...

The socio-ecological drivers of forest degradation in part of the tropical peatlands of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Connections between human activities (social systems) and nature (ecological systems) are key factors affecting forest-cover change in tropical peatland ecosystems. However, the complexity of these socio-ecological factors is often poorly understood. This study identifies the socio-ecological factors influencing land-cover change in the ex-Mega Rice Project area of Central ...

Estimating willingness to pay for watershed restoration in Flagstaff, Arizona using dichotomous-choice contingent valuation

Forest restoration reduces the probability of catastrophic wildfire and post-fire flooding; it therefore protects the quantity and quality of water in a restored watershed. The Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) is a landscape scale restoration initiative in Northern Arizona. 4FRI plans to restore the majority of the forested watersheds that provide the municipal water ...

Predicting wood quantity and quality attributes of balsam fir and black spruce using airborne laser scanner data

The objective of this study was to determine whether a suite of wood quantity and quality attributes of balsam fir and black spruce forests could be predicted using airborne laser scanner data. In situ estimates of stand structure and wood fibre attributes were derived from measurements at sample plots covering a wide range of forest conditions of insular Newfoundland. Models ...

The response of ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae) and hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to afforestation assessed using within-site tracking

In many countries throughout the world, the area of plantation forests continues to increase and they now dominate many landscapes. In recent decades, forest cover in Ireland has expanded largely due to commercial afforestation with non-native conifers. This study provides the first within-site assessment of the response of two important arthropod groups to afforestation in ...

A chronosequence study of soil nutrient status under oak and Corsican pine with Ellenberg assessed ground vegetation changes

Ellenberg indices (light, nitrogen, reaction and water) were derived from the Environmental Change Network ground flora survey under pedunculate oak (Quercus robur (L.) <200 years) and Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var maritima ((Ait.) Melville) <60 years) at Alice Holt Forest and compared with soil factors analysed for moisture, pH and nutrients, NH4-N, NO3-N and water-soluble ...

Black spruce growth and survival in boreal open woodlands 10 years following mechanical site preparation and planting

Since 1950, the creation of open woodlands has increased in Canada's northeastern continuous boreal forest and recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms underlying their creation are similar to those found in the lichen woodland zone. Since no natural re-densification of open woodlands has been observed to date, afforestation is necessary to counteract an increase of ...

Comparing the efficiency of intensity-based forest inventories with sampling-error-based forest inventories

Forest resources can be assessed using two ground measurements approaches: one centred on preset intensity and the other centred on sampling error. The objective of the present research is to evaluate the efficiency of the two sampling approaches using a factorial design, the factors being intensity, area, sampling error and coefficient of variation. Overall, an inventory executed ...

Simulated transformation of even-aged Norway spruce stands to multi-layered forests: an experiment to explore the potential of tree size differentiation

The study investigated the possibility to transform normal young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) forests to develop more heterogeneous stand structures, aiming for multi-layered forest in the long run. On three sites in central and south Sweden, 60 per cent of stand basal area was removed by thinning mainly medium-sized trees and leaving the smallest and the largest trees. ...

Storm and snow damage in a Norway spruce thinning experiment in southern Sweden

To assess uncertainties regarding the effects of thinning on risks of storm and snow damage, three thinning treatments (control, normal and heavy: 0, 30 and 61 per cent basal area removal, respectively) with four replications were applied in a 33-year-old Norway spruce plantation on a fertile site in south-west Sweden. A major storm event occurred three growing seasons after ...

Understanding risk in forest ecosystem services: implications for effective risk management, communication and planning

Uncertainty, insufficient information or information of poor quality, limited cognitive capacity and time, along with value conflicts and ethical considerations, are all aspects that make risk management and risk communication difficult. This paper provides a review of different risk concepts and describes how these influence risk management, communication and planning in relation ...

Mixtures with spruce species can be more productive than monocultures: evidence from the Gisburn experiment in Britain

In 1955, an experiment was established at Gisburn forest in northern England to compare the performance of pure and mixed plots of four species: Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), sessile oak (Quercus petraea) and common alder (Alnus glutinosa). At the end of the first rotation, there was enhanced growth in all mixtures with Scots pine while there was a ...

Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in southeast Alaska ...