Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

http://link.springer.com/journal/334

List of Papers (Total 81)

Four points on Lennart von Post and the invention of “Pollen Statistics”

This essay is a contribution to the historiography of Lennart von Post and the early development of quantitative pollen analysis. Based on von Post’s own publications and source material from the archives of Stockholm University College, where he was appointed professor in 1929, the essay offers four points on von Post’s scientific identity and the collective work through which ...

Palaeo-ecological and archaeological analysis of two Dutch Celtic fields (Zeijen-Noordse Veld and Wekerom-Lunteren): solving the puzzle of local Celtic field bank formation

Celtic fields are the best preserved and most widely distributed type of prehistoric agricultural landscape in the Netherlands, and occur throughout north-western Europe. In this contribution, data from two excavated Dutch Celtic fields are used to explain the process of bank formation and to unravel the agricultural regime of Celtic fields. To this end, traditional archaeological ...

Environmental context and the role of plants at the early medieval artificial island in the lake Paklicko Wielkie, Nowy Dworek, western Poland

This paper reports the archaeobotanical investigation of the early medieval lake site near Nowy Dworek, in the west of Poland, focussing on the role of plants on and around the site. The construction of a small, artificial island in a lake similar to Irish crannogs, traces of a wooden bridge and archaeological artefacts all indicate that the site was a special place for the local ...

Evidence for rare crop weeds of the Caucalidion group in Southwestern Germany since the Bronze Age: palaeoecological implications

The crop weed communities of dry calcareous soils are today very rare and endangered. In the first half of the 20th century this group was already in an advanced stage of disappearance, caused by the intensification of agriculture since the 19th century. Therefore, botanists only found these plants in a few regions with calcareous soils, obviously reflecting the geological ...

A methodological approach to the study of archaeological cereal meals: a case study at Çatalhöyük East (Turkey)

This paper presents an integrated methodology for the analysis of archaeological remains of cereal meals, based on scanning electronic microscopic analyses of microstructures of charred food fragments from Neolithic Çatalhöyük (Turkey). The remains of cereal foods as ‘bread-like’ or ‘porridge-like’ small charred lumps of various amalgamated plant materials are frequently recovered ...

Neolithic land use in the northern Boreal zone: high-resolution multiproxy analyses from Lake Huhdasjärvi, south-eastern Finland

Two high-resolution pollen and charcoal analyses were constructed from sediments obtained from a small bay in eastern Finland in order to gain information on human activity during the Neolithic Stone Age, 5200–1800 bc. We used measurements of loss on ignition (LOI), magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses to describe the sedimentological characteristics. Palaeomagnetic ...

High-resolution palynology reveals the land use history of a Sami renvall in northern Sweden

The limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence means that much is still unknown about the development of Sami reindeer herding in Fennoscandia in both the recent and more distant past. To address this problem, high-resolution palynological analyses, 14C and 210Pb dating were undertaken on two adjacent (<25 m apart) peat profiles collected at a recently abandoned ...

Cereal cultivation from the Iron Age to historical times: evidence from inland and coastal settlements in northernmost Fennoscandia

For several decades researchers have debated when cereal cultivation was introduced to northernmost Europe. Most previous studies have concentrated on sites along the coast or close to major rivers; these are areas well-suited to agriculture and represent routes for people and knowledge transfer, but omit other vast areas suitable for cultivation and sedentary settlement. Here, we ...

From wetland to commercial centre: the natural history of Wyspa Spichrzów (“Granary Island”) in medieval Gdańsk, northern Poland

This paper describes the analyses of pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, macroremains and geochemistry in sediments from archaeological excavations at Wyspa Spichrzów (“Granary Island”) in Gdańsk, northern Poland. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the environmental conditions in this part of the town in the period preceding its occupation and during its transformation with the ...

Exploring Indus crop processing: combining phytolith and macrobotanical analyses to consider the organisation of agriculture in northwest India c. 3200–1500 bc

This paper presents a preliminary study combining macrobotanical and phytolith analyses to explore crop processing at archaeological sites in Haryana and Rajasthan, northwest India. Current understanding of the agricultural strategies in use by populations associated with South Asia’s Indus Civilisation (3200–1900 bc) has been derived from a small number of systematic ...

Determining the responses of vegetation to natural processes and human impacts in north-eastern Poland during the last millennium: combined pollen, geochemical and historical data

Pollen, charcoal and geochemical investigations were carried out on annually laminated sediments of Lake Żabińskie (54°07′54.5″N; 21°59′01.1″E) and the results were combined with historical and climate data to better understand the mechanism behind plant cover transformations. A millennium-long record of environmental history at 6-years time resolution permitted an assessment of ...

Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After drying, the high heating value and structure of OPR makes it an excellent and ...

Seven Millennia of human impact as reflected in a high resolution pollen profile from the profundal sediments of Litzelsee, Lake Constance region, Germany

A profundal core from Litzelsee, a small cirque lake in the western Lake Constance region, was investigated by pollen analysis and dated radiometrically. The upper part of the core, chronologically between 5000 cal bc and 1850 ad, was sampled continuously, resulting in a total of 449 samples, each with a sum of 1,000 arboreal pollen grains. Also in this huge data set, rare taxa, ...

Stand-scale reconstruction of late Holocene forest succession on the Gdańsk Upland (N. Poland) based on integrated palynological and macrofossil data from paired sites

This study concerns the stand-scale palaeoecological reconstruction of the subsequent stages of late Holocene vegetation development on habitats recently covered by beech-dominated woodland in the southern Baltic region. The data, based on pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, macrofossil and charcoal analyses from two close-lying sites, demonstrated that each of the subsequent late ...

Early Holocene environmental change and the presence of Mesolithic people in the Tungelroyse Beek valley near Mildert, the Netherlands

An archaeological excavation in the Tungelroyse Beek valley revealed the remains of two red deer specimens (Cervus elaphus) of Early Mesolithic age that possibly were the victims of hunter-gatherers. The find of animal remains of this age is unique in the Netherlands. In this respect, a sediment core taken close to the remains was investigated, i.e. to reconstruct the vegetation ...

From deciduous forest to open landscape: application of new approaches to help understand cultural landscape development in western Norway

Development of the cultural landscape in a village situated by the inner fjords of western Norway is investigated by pollen analysis and quantitative reconstruction methods. Pollen samples from lake sediments and a soil profile were analysed and represent different spatial scales. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to a large and a small lake to convert pollen ...

Are pollen records from small sites appropriate for REVEALS model-based quantitative reconstructions of past regional vegetation? An empirical test in southern Sweden

In this paper we test the performance of the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using pollen records from multiple small sites. We use Holocene pollen records from large and small sites in southern Sweden to identify what is/are the most significant variable(s) affecting the REVEALS-based reconstructions, i.e. type of site (lakes and/or ...

Combining functional weed ecology and crop stable isotope ratios to identify cultivation intensity: a comparison of cereal production regimes in Haute Provence, France and Asturias, Spain

This investigation combines two independent methods of identifying crop growing conditions and husbandry practices—functional weed ecology and crop stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis—in order to assess their potential for inferring the intensity of past cereal production systems using archaeobotanical assemblages. Present-day organic cereal farming in Haute Provence, ...

The comparison of archaeobotanical data and the oldest documentary records (14th–15th century) of useful plants in medieval Gdańsk, northern Poland

This paper presents a comparison of archaeobotanical data with information about useful plants from the oldest (14th–15th century) written sources that have survived in the archives of Gdańsk, northern Poland. The main information on plant products, available in medieval documents from Gdańsk, concerns taxa traded by merchants as well as those used by the Teutonic Knights or the ...

The Iron Age in the Mrągowo Lake District, Masuria, NE Poland: the Salęt settlement microregion as an example of long-lasting human impact on vegetation

Pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and geochemical analyses of sediments from Lake Salęt (NE Poland) were used to reconstruct vegetation changes related to the activity of the West Balt tribes during the Iron Age, in the period between the second half of the 7th century bc and the beginning of the 10th century ad. We distinguished five phases of human impact on environment. ...