Vegetation History and Archaeobotany

http://link.springer.com/journal/334

List of Papers (Total 74)

High-resolution palynology reveals the land use history of a Sami renvall in northern Sweden

The limited availability of historical and archaeological evidence means that much is still unknown about the development of Sami reindeer herding in Fennoscandia in both the recent and more distant past. To address this problem, high-resolution palynological analyses, 14C and 210Pb dating were undertaken on two adjacent (<25 m apart) peat profiles collected at a recently abandoned ...

Cereal cultivation from the Iron Age to historical times: evidence from inland and coastal settlements in northernmost Fennoscandia

For several decades researchers have debated when cereal cultivation was introduced to northernmost Europe. Most previous studies have concentrated on sites along the coast or close to major rivers; these are areas well-suited to agriculture and represent routes for people and knowledge transfer, but omit other vast areas suitable for cultivation and sedentary settlement. Here, we ...

From wetland to commercial centre: the natural history of Wyspa Spichrzów (“Granary Island”) in medieval Gdańsk, northern Poland

This paper describes the analyses of pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, macroremains and geochemistry in sediments from archaeological excavations at Wyspa Spichrzów (“Granary Island”) in Gdańsk, northern Poland. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the environmental conditions in this part of the town in the period preceding its occupation and during its transformation with the ...

Exploring Indus crop processing: combining phytolith and macrobotanical analyses to consider the organisation of agriculture in northwest India c. 3200–1500 bc

This paper presents a preliminary study combining macrobotanical and phytolith analyses to explore crop processing at archaeological sites in Haryana and Rajasthan, northwest India. Current understanding of the agricultural strategies in use by populations associated with South Asia’s Indus Civilisation (3200–1900 bc) has been derived from a small number of systematic ...

Determining the responses of vegetation to natural processes and human impacts in north-eastern Poland during the last millennium: combined pollen, geochemical and historical data

Pollen, charcoal and geochemical investigations were carried out on annually laminated sediments of Lake Żabińskie (54°07′54.5″N; 21°59′01.1″E) and the results were combined with historical and climate data to better understand the mechanism behind plant cover transformations. A millennium-long record of environmental history at 6-years time resolution permitted an assessment of ...

Charred olive stones: experimental and archaeological evidence for recognizing olive processing residues used as fuel

After extracting oil from olives a residue is left usually referred to as the olive oil processing residue (OPR). This study explores the way in which ancient societies may have used OPR as fuel for fires to generate heat and the various issues that are related to the residues of this fuel. After drying, the high heating value and structure of OPR makes it an excellent and ...

Seven Millennia of human impact as reflected in a high resolution pollen profile from the profundal sediments of Litzelsee, Lake Constance region, Germany

A profundal core from Litzelsee, a small cirque lake in the western Lake Constance region, was investigated by pollen analysis and dated radiometrically. The upper part of the core, chronologically between 5000 cal bc and 1850 ad, was sampled continuously, resulting in a total of 449 samples, each with a sum of 1,000 arboreal pollen grains. Also in this huge data set, rare taxa, ...

Stand-scale reconstruction of late Holocene forest succession on the Gdańsk Upland (N. Poland) based on integrated palynological and macrofossil data from paired sites

This study concerns the stand-scale palaeoecological reconstruction of the subsequent stages of late Holocene vegetation development on habitats recently covered by beech-dominated woodland in the southern Baltic region. The data, based on pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, macrofossil and charcoal analyses from two close-lying sites, demonstrated that each of the subsequent late ...

Early Holocene environmental change and the presence of Mesolithic people in the Tungelroyse Beek valley near Mildert, the Netherlands

An archaeological excavation in the Tungelroyse Beek valley revealed the remains of two red deer specimens (Cervus elaphus) of Early Mesolithic age that possibly were the victims of hunter-gatherers. The find of animal remains of this age is unique in the Netherlands. In this respect, a sediment core taken close to the remains was investigated, i.e. to reconstruct the vegetation ...

From deciduous forest to open landscape: application of new approaches to help understand cultural landscape development in western Norway

Development of the cultural landscape in a village situated by the inner fjords of western Norway is investigated by pollen analysis and quantitative reconstruction methods. Pollen samples from lake sediments and a soil profile were analysed and represent different spatial scales. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to a large and a small lake to convert pollen ...

Are pollen records from small sites appropriate for REVEALS model-based quantitative reconstructions of past regional vegetation? An empirical test in southern Sweden

In this paper we test the performance of the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using pollen records from multiple small sites. We use Holocene pollen records from large and small sites in southern Sweden to identify what is/are the most significant variable(s) affecting the REVEALS-based reconstructions, i.e. type of site (lakes and/or ...

Combining functional weed ecology and crop stable isotope ratios to identify cultivation intensity: a comparison of cereal production regimes in Haute Provence, France and Asturias, Spain

This investigation combines two independent methods of identifying crop growing conditions and husbandry practices—functional weed ecology and crop stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis—in order to assess their potential for inferring the intensity of past cereal production systems using archaeobotanical assemblages. Present-day organic cereal farming in Haute Provence, ...

The comparison of archaeobotanical data and the oldest documentary records (14th–15th century) of useful plants in medieval Gdańsk, northern Poland

This paper presents a comparison of archaeobotanical data with information about useful plants from the oldest (14th–15th century) written sources that have survived in the archives of Gdańsk, northern Poland. The main information on plant products, available in medieval documents from Gdańsk, concerns taxa traded by merchants as well as those used by the Teutonic Knights or the ...

The Iron Age in the Mrągowo Lake District, Masuria, NE Poland: the Salęt settlement microregion as an example of long-lasting human impact on vegetation

Pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and geochemical analyses of sediments from Lake Salęt (NE Poland) were used to reconstruct vegetation changes related to the activity of the West Balt tribes during the Iron Age, in the period between the second half of the 7th century bc and the beginning of the 10th century ad. We distinguished five phases of human impact on environment. ...

The environmental and cultural contexts of the late Iron Age and medieval settlement in the Mazurian Lake District, NE Poland: combined palaeobotanical and archaeological data

Pollen analysis of sediments from three lakes and analysis of plant macroremains including charcoal from archaeological sites in the Mazurian Lake District provide new data for the reconstruction of vegetation changes related to human activity between the 1st and 13th century ad. At that time settlements of the Bogaczewo culture (from the turn of the 1st century ad to the first ...

Living on the good soil: relationships between soils, vegetation and human settlement during the late Allerød period in Denmark

The immigration of woody plants, especially Betula (tree birch), is examined in relation to geomorphological regions in a compilation of Late-glacial plant macrofossil records from Denmark. The immigration of trees led to a large ecological transformation of the landscape and had a major effect on the flora and fauna available to Palaeolithic people. We show that soil type was a ...