Behavior Research Methods

http://link.springer.com/journal/13428

List of Papers (Total 5,442)

Identifying category representations for complex stimuli using discrete Markov chain Monte Carlo with people

With the explosion of “big data,” digital repositories of texts and images are growing rapidly. These datasets present new opportunities for psychological research, but they require new methodologies before researchers can use these datasets to yield insights into human cognition. We present a new method that allows psychological researchers to take advantage of text and image...

Large data and Bayesian modeling—aging curves of NBA players

Researchers interested in changes that occur as people age are faced with a number of methodological problems, starting with the immense time scale they are trying to capture, which renders laboratory experiments useless and longitudinal studies rather rare. Fortunately, some people take part in particular activities and pastimes throughout their lives, and often these activities...

RegularizedSCA: Regularized simultaneous component analysis of multiblock data in R

This article introduces a package developed for R (R Core Team, 2017) for performing an integrated analysis of multiple data blocks (i.e., linked data) coming from different sources. The methods in this package combine simultaneous component analysis (SCA) with structured selection of variables. The key feature of this package is that it allows to (1) identify joint variation...

A norming study of high-quality video clips of pantomimes, emblems, and meaningless gestures

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the processing of symbolic communicative gestures, such as pantomimes and emblems, but well-controlled stimuli have been scarce. This study describes a dataset of more than 200 video clips of an actress performing pantomimes (gestures that mimic object-directed/object-use actions; e.g...

RECAPP-XPR: A smartphone application for presenting and recalling experimentally controlled stimuli over longer timescales

We report two experiments that used smartphone applications for presenting and recalling verbal stimuli over extended timescales. In Experiment 1, we used an iPhone application that we had developed, called RECAPP-XPR, to present 76 participants with a single list of eight words presented at a rate of one word every hour, followed by a test of free recall an hour later. The...

Bayesian evaluation of informative hypotheses in cluster-randomized trials

Researchers often have informative hypotheses in mind when comparing means across treatment groups, such as H1 : μA < μB < μC and H2 : μB < μA < μC, and want to compare these hypotheses to each other directly. This can be done by means of Bayesian inference. This article discusses the disadvantages of the frequentist approach to null hypothesis testing and the advantages of the...

Gaze tracking accuracy in humans: One eye is sometimes better than two

Most modern video eye trackers deliver binocular data. Many researchers take the average of the left and right eye signals (the version signal) to decrease the variable error (precision) up to a factor of \(\sqrt {2}\). What happens to the systematic error (accuracy) if the left and right eye signals are averaged? To determine the systematic error, we conducted a calibration...

Moderation analysis in two-instance repeated measures designs: Probing methods and multiple moderator models

Moderation hypotheses appear in every area of psychological science, but the methods for testing and probing moderation in two-instance repeated measures designs are incomplete. This article begins with a short overview of testing and probing interactions in between-participant designs. Next I review the methods outlined in Judd, McClelland, and Smith (Psychological Methods 1...

New improved gamma: Enhancing the accuracy of Goodman–Kruskal’s gamma using ROC curves

For decades, researchers have debated the relative merits of different measures of people’s ability to discriminate the correctness of their own responses (resolution). The probabilistic approach, primarily led by Nelson, has advocated the Goodman–Kruskal gamma coefficient, an ordinal measure of association. The signal detection approach has advocated parametric measures of...

The Glasgow Norms: Ratings of 5,500 words on nine scales

The Glasgow Norms are a set of normative ratings for 5,553 English words on nine psycholinguistic dimensions: arousal, valence, dominance, concreteness, imageability, familiarity, age of acquisition, semantic size, and gender association. The Glasgow Norms are unique in several respects. First, the corpus itself is relatively large, while simultaneously providing norms across a...

Fast and slow errors: Logistic regression to identify patterns in accuracy–response time relationships

Understanding error and response time patterns is essential for making inferences in several domains of cognitive psychology. Crucial insights on cognitive performance and typical behavioral patterns are disclosed by using distributional analyses such as conditional accuracy functions (CAFs) instead of mean statistics. Several common behavioral error patterns revealed by CAFs are...

Mymou: A low-cost, wireless touchscreen system for automated training of nonhuman primates

Training nonhuman primates (NHPs) to perform cognitive tasks is essential for many neuroscientific investigations, yet laboratory training is a time-consuming process with inherent limitations. Habituating NHPs to the laboratory staff and experimental equipment can take months before NHPs are ready to proceed to the primary tasks. Laboratory training also necessarily separates...

Toward the markerless and automatic analysis of kinematic features: A toolkit for gesture and movement research

Action, gesture, and sign represent unique aspects of human communication that use form and movement to convey meaning. Researchers typically use manual coding of video data to characterize naturalistic, meaningful movements at various levels of description, but the availability of markerless motion-tracking technology allows for quantification of the kinematic features of...

Replication Bayes factors from evidence updating

We describe a general method that allows experimenters to quantify the evidence from the data of a direct replication attempt given data already acquired from an original study. These so-called replication Bayes factors are a reconceptualization of the ones introduced by Verhagen and Wagenmakers (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143(4), 1457–1475 2014) for the common...

Emergence of polarized opinions from free association networks

We developed a method that can identify polarized public opinions by finding modules in a network of statistically related free word associations. Associations to the cue “migrant” were collected from two independent and comprehensive samples in Hungary (N1 = 505, N2 = 505). The co-occurrence-based relations of the free word associations reflected emotional similarity, and the...

Soundgen: An open-source tool for synthesizing nonverbal vocalizations

Voice synthesis is a useful method for investigating the communicative role of different acoustic features. Although many text-to-speech systems are available, researchers of human nonverbal vocalizations and bioacousticians may profit from a dedicated simple tool for synthesizing and manipulating natural-sounding vocalizations. Soundgen (https://CRAN.R-project.org/package...

Comparing the use of open and closed questions for Web-based measures of the continued-influence effect

Open-ended questions, in which participants write or type their responses, are used in many areas of the behavioral sciences. Although effective in the lab, they are relatively untested in online experiments, and the quality of responses is largely unexplored. Closed-ended questions are easier to use online because they generally require only single key- or mouse-press responses...

Testing moderator hypotheses in meta-analytic structural equation modeling using subgroup analysis

Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) is a statistical technique to pool correlation matrices and test structural equation models on the pooled correlation matrix. In Stage 1 of MASEM, correlation matrices from independent studies are combined to obtain a pooled correlation matrix, using fixed- or random-effects analysis. In Stage 2, a structural model is fitted to...

Sit still and pay attention: Using the Wii Balance-Board to detect lapses in concentration in children during psychophysical testing

During psychophysical testing, a loss of concentration can cause observers to answer incorrectly, even when the stimulus is clearly perceptible. Such lapses limit the accuracy and speed of many psychophysical measurements. This study evaluates an automated technique for detecting lapses based on body movement (postural instability). Thirty-five children (8–11 years of age) and 34...

The EU-Emotion Voice Database

In this study, we report the validation results of the EU-Emotion Voice Database, an emotional voice database available for scientific use, containing a total of 2,159 validated emotional voice stimuli. The EU-Emotion voice stimuli consist of audio-recordings of 54 actors, each uttering sentences with the intention of conveying 20 different emotional states (plus neutral). The...

The Schultz MIDI Benchmarking Toolbox for MIDI interfaces, percussion pads, and sound cards

The Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) was readily adopted for auditory sensorimotor synchronization experiments. These experiments typically use MIDI percussion pads to collect responses, a MIDI–USB converter (or MIDI–PCI interface) to record responses on a PC and manipulate feedback, and an external MIDI sound module to generate auditory feedback. Previous studies have...