Química Nova

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List of Papers (Total 498)

Utilização do índice de retenção linear para caracterização de compostos voláteis em café solúvel utilizando GC-MS e coluna HP-Innowax

Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is widely used for the characterization of volatile compounds. However, due to the complexity of the soluble coffee matrix, a complete identification of the components should not be based on mass spectra interpretation only. The linear index of retention (LRI) is frequently used to give support to mass spectra. The aim of...

Metodologias eletroanalíticas para a determinação de herbicidas triazínicos por voltametria de onda quadrada e técnicas de deconvolução

This work describes the development of electroanalytical methodologies for the determination of atrazine, ametrine and simazine by square wave voltammetry on a mercury electrode. For pure atrazine and pure ametrine, the detection limits (DL) were 3.7 and 4.3 µg L-1, respectively, while they increased to 4.8 and 6.5 µg L-1 in the presence of 3.0 x 10-6 mol L-1 of the other...

Transesterificação de óleos vegetais: caracterização por cromatografia em camada delgada e densidade

We studied the transesterification of two vegetable oils: soybean and waste frying oil. The main problem of transesterification is related to the measurement of the ethyl ester content. In this work we used a quick analytical method for assessing the ethyl ester fraction of the purified fuel-grade transesterification products by applying a simple correlation with density. If the...

Seasonal variation in the composition of volatile oils from Schinus terebinthifolius raddi

Essential oils from leaves, ripe and unripe fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius growing in Brazil were investigated. Oil content from either ripe or unripe fruits was similar (4.65% and 3.98%, respectively). Sesquiterpenes (from 78.0% to 90.4%) dominated the oil content of both leaves and unripe fruit. The essential oils were tested in vitro for their allelopathic activity on...

Cristais líquidos colestéricos: a quiralidade revela as suas cores

Chirality deeply impacts the macroscopic properties on all scales of the universe from elemental particles through biological structures up to astronomic systems. Specifically, chiral liquid crystals give rise to self-organized macrostructures with unparalleled properties. Here we present easy experiments with a special class of chiral liquid crystals that show temperature...

Emprego de planejamento fatorial no desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para extração de zinco de resíduos galvânicos

The plating process generates solid waste rich in heavy metals and aiming to reduce environmental impact of such waste, this work suggests a methodology for zinc reduction, through a 24 factorial planning, studying the influence of the following variables: acid concentration (15, 20 or 30% v/v), acid type (sulfuric or hydrochloric), acid volume (15, 20 or 25 mL) and extraction...

Eletrodo compósito à base de grafite-araldite®: aplicações didáticas

A composite electrode prepared by mixing a commercial epoxy resin Araldite® and graphite powder is proposed to be used in didactic experiments. The electrode is prepared by the students and applied in simple experiments to demonstrate the effect of the composite composition on the conductivity and the voltammetric response of the resulting electrode, as well as the response in...

The synthesis of a water-soluble derivative of rutin as an antiradical agent

The purpose of this study was to synthesize a water-soluble derivative of rutin (compound 2) by introducing carboxylate groups on rutin's sugar moiety. The rutin derivative showed an almost 100-fold solubility increase in water. The antiradical capacity of compound 2 was evaluated using the luminol/AAPH system, and the derivative's activity was 1.5 times greater than that of...

Técnica de bombeio e prova para medidas de absorção de estado excitado e de emissão estimulada, em materiais sólidos dopados com íons terras raras

Rare earth ion doped solid state materials are the most important active media of near-infrared and visible lasers and other photonic devices. In these ions, the occurrence of Excited State Absorptions (ESA), from long lived electronic levels, is commonplace. Since ESA can deeply affect the efficiencies of the rare earth emissions, evaluation of these transitions cross sections...

Perda química de carbono e cinética do crescimento celular em cultivos de Spirulina

Photosynthetic microorganism cultures, such as microalgae, represent one of the alternatives for fossil CO2 emissions mitigation. Carbon supply is the major cost component in microalgal cultures. Aiming to enhance the dissolved inorganic carbon uptake efficiency in microalgal cultures, Spirulina sp LEB-18 was cultivated in mediums containing NaHCO3 concentrations ranging from 2.8...

Obtenção e caracterização de α-quitina e quitosanas de cascas de Macrobrachium rosembergii

The shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were submitted to deproteinization (Dp) and demineralization (Dm) aiming the extraction of α-chitin. The different parts of the shells were processed independently by carrying out sequence 1 (Dp/Dm) and sequence 2 (Dm/Dp). Both sequences allowed the extraction of chitins with low contents of calcium and magnesium, regardless of the part...

Parâmetros bioquímicos foliares das espécies Licania tomentosa (Benth.) e Bauhinia forficata (Link.) para avaliação da qualidade do ar

Foliar analysis of biochemical parameters were carried out in order to investigate the influence of air pollutants on two tropical tree species (Licania tomentosa (Benth.) and Bauhinia forfícata (Link.)). Special attention was given to tropospheric ozone due to the fact that concentration levels in the region were found to be up to 140 µg m-3 for a 4 h average time, which is well...

Desenvolvimento de um procedimento biamperométrico para determinação de sacarina em produtos dietéticos

In this work was developed a method for the determination of saccharin in dietary products by a biamperometric titration, using two silver electrodes as working electrodes and silver nitrate as titrant. It were used products as juices (light) and sweeteners with saccharin in concentrations ranged from 8.73 x 10-5 mol L-1 to 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1, and the results were in close...

Síntese e modificações de derivados heterocíclicos de D-arabinose: potenciais inibidores de glicose-6-fosfato isomerase e de glicosamina-6-fosfato sintase

The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from D-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was...

Avaliação da contaminação por organofosforados em águas superficiais no município de Rondinha - Rio Grande do Sul

Water pollution is a serious environmental problem. In Rondinha, Rio Grande do Sul, on a small area planted with tobacco, it has been using organophosphates pesticides. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organophosphates pesticides contamination of the superficial water in this municipality. The samples collected in fifteen places were evaluated by the method of...

Conteúdo lipídico e composição de ácidos graxos de microalgas expostas aos gases CO2, SO2 e NO

The objective of the present work was to verify the lipid content and the fatty acid composition of the microalgae Spirulina sp., Scenedesmus obliquus, Synechococcus nidulans and Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a medium containing CO2, SO2 and NO. The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus presented the highest lipid content (6.18%). For the other microalgae the lipid content ranged...

Classificação de refrigerantes através de análise de imagens e análise de componentes principais (PCA)

This paper describes an approach for the colour-based classification of RGB (red-green-blue) images, acquired using a common scanner, of commercial carbonated soft drinks. Mean histograms of image colour channels were evaluated for the PCA classification of 29 brands of Guaraná, Cola, and orange flavors. Loadings for principal component axes resulted in different patterns for...

químicos das folhas de Qualea grandiflora: atribuição dos dados de RMN de dois flavonóides glicosilados acilados diastereoisoméricos

Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of...

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of 'açaí

Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria...

Electrochemical behavior of parent and photodegradation products of some selected pesticides

Electrochemical behavior of pesticides is extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the study of their degradation products (by-products) by electrochemical methods. However, the degradation products of pesticides can be even more toxic then the parent products and such studies should be encouraged. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the...

A química supramolecular de complexos pirazólicos

The purpose of this review is to describe the progress in the supramolecular chemistry of the pyrazolyl-based metal complexes. The text is written under the structural point of view, emphasizing the role of the covalent and non-covalent interactions in the rational construction of super and supramolecules.

Effect of the radiolitic sterilization in polyethylene/starch blends

Samples of LDPE/modified starch blends 80/20 m/m before and after exposure to gamma rays were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction. The effect of gamma radiation is clearly seen in the samples irradiated at a dose of 25 kGy. The main alteration in the polymeric material after exposure at the radiation...

Can affinity interactions influence the partitioning of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in two-phase aqueous micellar systems?

In this work, we provide an investigation of the role and strength of affinity interactions on the partitioning of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in aqueous two-phase micellar systems. These systems are constituted of micellar surfactant solutions and offer both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments, providing selectivity to biomolecules. We studied G6PD partitioning in...

Rendimento térmico e emissões de contaminantes atmosféricos de gasolinas formuladas com etanol, MBTE e TAEE

The specific consumption and carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions from gasolines formulated with ethanol, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl ethyl ether (TAEE) were evaluated in the rich, stoichiometric and lean-burn regions during the operation of an Otto-cycle engine. The use of ethanol as an additive presented high specific consumption, while...