Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

http://link.springer.com/journal/13423

List of Papers (Total 3,017)

Word position coding in reading is noisy

In the present article, we investigate a largely unstudied cognitive process: word position coding. The question of how readers perceive word order is not trivial: Recent research has suggested that readers associate activated word representations with plausible locations in a sentence-level representation. Rather than simply being dictated by the order in which words are...

Virtual reality: A game-changing method for the language sciences

This paper introduces virtual reality as an experimental method for the language sciences and provides a review of recent studies using the method to answer fundamental, psycholinguistic research questions. It is argued that virtual reality demonstrates that ecological validity and experimental control should not be conceived of as two extremes on a continuum, but rather as two...

The diversity effect in inductive reasoning depends on sampling assumptions

A key phenomenon in inductive reasoning is the diversity effect, whereby a novel property is more likely to be generalized when it is shared by an evidence sample composed of diverse instances than a sample composed of similar instances. We outline a Bayesian model and an experimental study that show that the diversity effect depends on the assumption that samples of evidence...

Understanding individual differences in theory of mind via representation of minds, not mental states

The human ability to make inferences about the minds of conspecifics is remarkable. The majority of work in this area focuses on mental state representation (‘theory of mind’), but has had limited success in explaining individual differences in this ability, and is characterized by the lack of a theoretical framework that can account for the effect of variability in the...

Sequential sampling models with variable boundaries and non-normal noise: A comparison of six models

One of the most prominent response-time models in cognitive psychology is the diffusion model, which assumes that decision-making is based on a continuous evidence accumulation described by a Wiener diffusion process. In the present paper, we examine two basic assumptions of standard diffusion model analyses. Firstly, we address the question of whether participants adjust their...

Do confidence ratings prime confidence?

Confidence ratings (CR) are one of the most frequently used measures in psychological research. However, recent evidence has suggested that eliciting CR from participants may result in changes to cognitive performance, so called reactivity. Here, we examine whether reactivity to CR can be better explained by added task-relevant introspection, or, alternatively, the unintentional...

Enlightenment beats prejudice: The reversibility of stereotype-induced memory distortion

Social stereotypes impact how we remember people, but how stable is this influence? Inspired by the reversibility of the eyewitness misinformation effect through postwarnings about the planting of misinformation (‘enlightenment’), we explored if stereotype influence on person memory can be similarly reversed. Participants read person self-descriptions and subsequently answered...

When does sleep affect veridical and false memory consolidation? A meta-analysis

It is widely accepted that sleep aids in the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes involved in memory processing; however, the conditions under which sleep influences memory may be substantially constrained. In a meta-analysis, we examined the effects that sleep has on both veridical (accurate) and false memory consolidation, in studies using the Deese/Roediger...

Getting a grasp on action-specific scaling: A response to Witt (2017)

Can higher level cognition directly influence visual spatial perception? Many recent studies have claimed so, on the basis that manipulating cognitive factors (e.g., morality, emotion, action capacity) seems to directly affect perception. However, Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1–77, 2016) argued that such studies often fall prey to at least one of six...

Now and then: Hand choice is influenced by recent action history

Action choices are influenced by recent past and predicted future action states. Here, we demonstrate that recent hand-choice history affects both current hand choices and response times to initiate actions. Participants reach to contact visible targets using one hand. Hand choice is biased in favour of which hand was used recently, in particular, when the biomechanical costs of...

Exploring the neurocognitive basis of episodic recollection in autism

Increasing evidence indicates that the subjective experience of recollection is diminished in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to neurotypical individuals. The neurocognitive basis of this difference in how past events are re-experienced has been debated and various theoretical accounts have been proposed to date. Although each existing theory may capture particular...

Top-down matching singleton cues have no edge over top-down matching nonsingletons in spatial cueing

In the present study, we investigated in a novel version of the peripheral-cueing paradigm whether object salience influences attentional selection at early stages of visual processing. In each trial, participants searched for targets of one of two possible colors. In the most important condition, the cueing displays consisted of a singleton cue having one target color and three...

Flexible voices: Identity perception from variable vocal signals

Human voices are extremely variable: The same person can sound very different depending on whether they are speaking, laughing, shouting or whispering. In order to successfully recognise someone from their voice, a listener needs to be able to generalize across these different vocal signals (‘telling people together’). However, in most studies of voice-identity processing to date...

Characterizing belief bias in syllogistic reasoning: A hierarchical Bayesian meta-analysis of ROC data

The belief-bias effect is one of the most-studied biases in reasoning. A recent study of the phenomenon using the signal detection theory (SDT) model called into question all theoretical accounts of belief bias by demonstrating that belief-based differences in the ability to discriminate between valid and invalid syllogisms may be an artifact stemming from the use of...

Executive function underlies both perspective selection and calculation in Level-1 visual perspective taking

Previous research has suggested that the calculation of another’s perspective is cognitively efficient, whereas perspective selection (selection of a particular perspective, self or other) is associated with executive function, particularly inhibitory control. However, research has not previously tested how perspective calculation and selection may be associated with another key...

What do the experts know? Calibration, precision, and the wisdom of crowds among forensic handwriting experts

Forensic handwriting examiners currently testify to the origin of questioned handwriting for legal purposes. However, forensic scientists are increasingly being encouraged to assign probabilities to their observations in the form of a likelihood ratio. This study is the first to examine whether handwriting experts are able to estimate the frequency of US handwriting features more...

Human latent inhibition: Problems with the stimulus exposure effect

Latent inhibition (LI) is a startlingly simple effect in which preexposure of a stimulus without consequence retards subsequent responding to a stimulus–consequence relation. The effect was first demonstrated with Pavlovian conditioning in animals and was later suggested to be a marker of human psychopathology such as schizophrenia. Individual differences in LI has supported the...

Why checking model assumptions using null hypothesis significance tests does not suffice: A plea for plausibility

This article explores whether the null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) framework provides a sufficient basis for the evaluation of statistical model assumptions. It is argued that while NHST-based tests can provide some degree of confirmation for the model assumption that is evaluated—formulated as the null hypothesis—these tests do not inform us of the degree of support...

Motivational sensitivity of outcome-response priming: Experimental research and theoretical models

Outcome-response (O-R) priming is at the core of various associative theories of human intentional action. This is a simple and parsimonious mechanism by which activation of outcome representations (e.g. thinking about the light coming on) leads to activation of the associated motor patterns required to achieve it (e.g. pushing the light switch). In the current manuscript, we...

The Quality of Response Time Data Inference: A Blinded, Collaborative Assessment of the Validity of Cognitive Models

Most data analyses rely on models. To complement statistical models, psychologists have developed cognitive models, which translate observed variables into psychologically interesting constructs. Response time models, in particular, assume that response time and accuracy are the observed expression of latent variables including 1) ease of processing, 2) response caution, 3...