Experimental & Molecular Medicine

http://www.nature.com/emm

List of Papers (Total 983)

P110β in the ventromedial hypothalamus regulates glucose and energy metabolism

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in hypothalamic neurons integrates peripheral metabolic cues, including leptin and insulin, to coordinate systemic glucose and energy homeostasis. PI3K is composed of different subunits, each of which has several unique isoforms. However, the role of the PI3K subunits and isoforms in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a prominent site...

Extracellular vesicle-based therapeutics: natural versus engineered targeting and trafficking

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly being recognized as mediators of intercellular signaling via the delivery of effector molecules. Interestingly, certain types of EVs are also capable of inducing therapeutic responses. For these reasons, the therapeutic potential of EVs is a topic of intense research, both in the context of drug delivery and regenerative medicine...

Epigenetic analysis in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex chronic systematic disease with progressive destruction of the joints by invasive synoviocytes. To characterize the key regulators involved in the development of RA, we obtained multilayer epigenomics data including DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, miRNA profiles, genetic variations by whole-exome sequencing, and mRNA...

High-resolution respirometry in human endomyocardial biopsies shows reduced ventricular oxidative capacity related to heart failure

The lifetime risk of developing heart failure is approximately 20%, and survival rates remain poor. Myocardial mitochondrial function has been suggested to play a pivotal role in heart failure pathophysiology. Human studies on ex vivo mitochondrial function have mostly been limited to atrial tissue obtained during open heart surgery and have provided contradictory results. This...

Silencing growth hormone receptor inhibits estrogen receptor negative breast cancer through ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

Growth hormone receptor (GHR) plays a vital role in breast cancer chemoresistance and metastasis but the mechanism is not fully understood. We determined if GHR could be a potential therapeutic target for estrogen receptor negative (ER−ve) breast cancer, which are highly chemoresistant and metastatic. GHR was stably knocked down in ER-ve breast cancer cells and its effect on cell...

Whole genome MBD-seq and RRBS analyses reveal that hypermethylation of gastrointestinal hormone receptors is associated with gastric carcinogenesis

DNA methylation is a regulatory mechanism in epigenetics that is frequently altered during human carcinogenesis. To detect critical methylation events associated with gastric cancer (GC), we compared three DNA methylomes from gastric mucosa (GM), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gastric tumor (GT) cells that were microscopically dissected from an intestinal-type early gastric...

The emerging role of lncRNAs in inflammatory bowel disease

Dysregulation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression is linked to the development of various diseases. Recently, an emerging body of evidence has indicated that lncRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative Colitis (UC). In IBD, lncRNAs have been shown to be involved in diverse processes...

Stem cell-secreted 14,15- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid rescues cholesterol homeostasis and autophagic flux in Niemann–Pick-type C disease

We previously demonstrated that the direct transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the dentate gyrus ameliorated the neurological symptoms of Niemann–Pick type C1 (NPC1)-mutant mice. However, the clinical presentation of NPC1-mutant mice was not fully understood with a molecular mechanism. Here, we found 14,15...

Sorafenib resistance in hepatocarcinoma: role of hypoxia-inducible factors

Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor with antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic properties, constitutes the only effective first-line drug approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite its capacity to increase survival in HCC patients, its success is quite low in the long term owing to the development of resistant cells through several...

The implications of signaling lipids in cancer metastasis

Metastasis is the most malignant stage of cancer. Lipid metabolic abnormalities are now increasingly recognized as characteristics of cancer cells. The accumulation of certain lipid species, such as signaling lipids, due to the avidity of lipid metabolism may be a causal factor of tumor malignant progression and metastatic behavior. In this review, we first describe signaling...

Overexpression of TFF3 is involved in prostate carcinogenesis via blocking mitochondria-mediated apoptosis

The overexpression of trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) is observed in a variety of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa), and its potential role in carcinogenesis, such as activating the PI3K/AKT pathway, is suggested. However, its role and its related mechanisms in prostate tumorigenesis remain unknown. To elucidate the role of TFF3 overexpression in PCa, we silenced TFF3 in...

Cell-penetrating artificial mitochondria-targeting peptide-conjugated metallothionein 1A alleviates mitochondrial damage in Parkinson’s disease models

An excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) relative to the antioxidant capacity causes oxidative stress, which plays a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Because mitochondria are both sites of ROS generation and targets of ROS damage, the delivery of antioxidants to mitochondria might prevent or alleviate PD. To transduce the antioxidant protein human...

Z-FL-COCHO, a cathepsin S inhibitor, enhances oxaliplatin-mediated apoptosis through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

Multiple cancer cells highly express cathepsin S, which has pro-tumoral effects. However, it was previously unknown whether knockdown or a pharmacological inhibitor (ZFL) of cathepsin S acts as an inducer of ER stress. Here, ZFL and knockdown of cathepsin S markedly induced ER stress through the up-regulation of calcium levels in the cytosol. Induction of calcium levels by...

Mechanisms regulating intestinal barrier integrity and its pathological implications

The gastrointestinal tract is a specialized organ in which dynamic interactions between host cells and the complex environment occur in addition to food digestion. Together with the chemical barrier of the mucosal layer and the cellular immune system, the epithelial cell layer performs a pivotal role as the first physical barrier against external factors and maintains a symbiotic...

The IRE1α-XBP1s pathway promotes insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes by increasing PPARγ activity

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) improves whole-body insulin sensitivity by regulating the adipogenic and metabolic functions of mature adipocytes. We have previously demonstrated that an active splice variant of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) enhances PPARγ expression during adipogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of XBP1s, particularly...

Wnt pathway is involved in 5-FU drug resistance of colorectal cancer cells

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of cancers, but its antineoplastic activity is limited in drug-resistant cancer cells. To investigate the detailed mechanism of 5-FU resistance, we developed a model of 5-FU-resistant cells from HCT-8 cells, a well-established colorectal...

Studying cancer immunotherapy using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) in humanized mice

Cancer immunotherapy is a promising way to eliminate tumor cells by using the patient’s own immune system. Selecting the appropriate animal models to develop or validate preclinical immunotherapeutic trials is now an important aspect of many cancer research programs. Here we discuss the advantages and limitations of using genetically engineered immunodeficient mouse models...

Realizing the significance of noncoding functionality in clinical genomics

Clinical genomics promises unprecedented precision in understanding the genetic basis of disease. Understanding the impact of variation across the genome is required to realize this potential. Currently, clinical genomics analyses focus on protein-coding genes. However, the noncoding genome is substantially larger than the protein-coding counterpart, and contains structural...

Genomics in neurodevelopmental disorders: an avenue to personalized medicine

Despite the remarkable number of scientific breakthroughs of the last 100 years, the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability) remains a great challenge. Recent advancements in genomics, such as whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, have enabled scientists to identify numerous mutations underlying neurodevelopmental...

CircularRNA_104670 plays a critical role in intervertebral disc degeneration by functioning as a ceRNA

This study was carried out to explore the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Differentially expressed circRNAs in IDD and normal NP tissues were identified based on the results of microarray analysis. Bioinformatics techniques were employed to predict the direct interactions of selected circRNAs, microRNAs...

Differentially expressed genes related to major depressive disorder and antidepressant response: genome-wide gene expression analysis

Treatment response to antidepressants is limited and varies among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). To discover genes and mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of MDD and antidepressant treatment response, we performed gene expression analyses using peripheral blood specimens from 38 MDD patients and 14 healthy individuals at baseline and at 6 weeks after the...

N-α-acetyltransferase 10 (NAA10) in development: the role of NAA10

N-α-acetyltransferase 10 (NAA10) is a subunit of Nα-terminal protein acetyltransferase that plays a role in many biological processes. Among the six N-α-acetyltransferases (NATs) in eukaryotes, the biological significance of the N-terminal acetyl-activity of Naa10 has been the most studied. Recent findings in a few species, including humans, indicate that loss of N-terminal...

Spotlight on protein N-terminal acetylation

N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) is a widespread protein modification among eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike. By appending an acetyl group to the N-terminal amino group, the charge, hydrophobicity, and size of the N-terminus is altered in an irreversible manner. This alteration has implications for the lifespan, folding characteristics and binding properties of the...

ARD1/NAA10 in hepatocellular carcinoma: pathways and clinical implications

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a representative example of a malignancy with a poor prognosis, is characterized by high mortality because it is typically in an advanced stage at diagnosis and leaves very little hepatic functional reserve. Despite advances in medical and surgical techniques, there is no omnipotent tool that can diagnose HCC early and then cure it medically or...