Journal of Neuroinflammation

http://www.jneuroinflammation.com/

List of Papers (Total 1,763)

Sequential alteration of microglia and astrocytes in the rat thalamus following spinal nerve ligation

Spinal reactive astrocytes and microglia are known to participate to the initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, whether reactive astrocytes and microglia in thalamic nuclei that process sensory-discriminative aspects of pain play a role in pain behavior remains poorly investigated. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether the presence of reactive glia...

Fluoxetine attenuates neuroinflammation in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a possible role for the regulation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway

Neuroinflammation is closely associated with functional outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Our recent study demonstrated that fluoxetine inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated necrotic cell death in early brain injury after SAH, while the effects and potential mechanisms of fluoxetine on neuroinflammation after SAH have not been well-studied yet...

A review of the role of cav-1 in neuropathology and neural recovery after ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke starts a series of pathophysiological processes that cause brain injury. Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is an integrated protein and locates at the caveolar membrane. It has been demonstrated that cav-1 can protect blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity by inhibiting matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) which degrade tight junction proteins. This article reviews recent developments in...

Imaging glial activation in patients with post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms: a pilot study using [ 11 C]DPA-713 PET

The pathophysiology of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) may be linked to overactive immunity including aberrant activity of the brain’s resident immune cells, microglia. Here we used [11C]DPA-713 and positron emission tomography to quantify the 18 kDa translocator protein, a marker of activated microglia or reactive astrocytes, in the brains of patients with post...

A mathematical model of neuroinflammation in severe clinical traumatic brain injury

Understanding the interdependencies among inflammatory mediators of tissue damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is essential in providing effective, patient-specific care. Activated microglia and elevated concentrations of inflammatory signaling molecules reflect the complex cascades associated with acute neuroinflammation and are predictive of recovery after TBI...

The atypical RhoGTPase RhoE/Rnd3 is a key molecule to acquire a neuroprotective phenotype in microglia

Over-activated microglia play a central role during neuroinflammation, leading to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration. Reversion of over-activated to neuroprotective microglia phenotype could regenerate a healthy CNS-supporting microglia environment. Our aim was to identify a dataset of intracellular molecules in primary microglia that play a role in the transition of...

Methamphetamine neurotoxicity, microglia, and neuroinflammation

Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is subject to abuse worldwide. While the modulatory effects of METH on dopamine neurotransmission and its neurotoxicity in the central nervous system are well studied, METH’s effects on modulating microglial neuroimmune functions and on eliciting neuroinflammation to affect dopaminergic neurotoxicity has attracted...

Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibition prevents disruption of the blood-retina barrier during chronic inflammation

Microglia-associated inflammation is closely related to the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy, which are associated with increased vascular permeability. In this study, we investigated the effect of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to activation and proliferation of retinal microglia /macrophages. Balb/c and Cx3cr1gfp...

Hippocampal CA1 βCaMKII mediates neuroinflammatory responses via COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathways in depression

Neuroinflammation has recently emerged as a critical risk factor in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutic strategies as means to target these inflammatory pathways for use in the treatment of depression remain unresolved. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular events of...

Persistent reduction in sialylation of cerebral glycoproteins following postnatal inflammatory exposure

The extension of sepsis encompassing the preterm newborn’s brain is often overlooked due to technical challenges in this highly vulnerable population, yet it leads to substantial long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities. In this study, we demonstrate how neonatal neuroinflammation following postnatal E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in rat pups results in persistent...

The GLP-1 analog, liraglutide prevents the increase of proinflammatory mediators in the hippocampus of male rat pups submitted to maternal perinatal food restriction

Perinatal maternal malnutrition is related to altered growth of tissues and organs. The nervous system development is very sensitive to environmental insults, being the hippocampus a vulnerable structure, in which altered number of neurons and granular cells has been observed. Moreover, glial cells are also affected, and increased expression of proinflammatory mediators has been...

Regulatory role of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves in the proteoglycan-induced autoimmune arthritis model of the mouse

The regulatory role of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves has been shown in acute inflammation, but little is known about their involvement in T/B-cell driven autoimmune arthritis. This study integratively characterized the function of these nerve endings in the proteoglycan-induced chronic arthritis (PGIA), a translational model of rheumatoid arthritis. Peptidergic...

Profiling the proteomic inflammatory state of human astrocytes using DIA mass spectrometry

Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system and are responsible for a wide range of functions critical to normal neuronal development, synapse formation, blood-brain barrier regulation, and brain homeostasis. They are also actively involved in initiating and perpetuating neuroinflammatory responses. However, information about their proteomic phenotypes...

IL-17A contributes to perioperative neurocognitive disorders through blood-brain barrier disruption in aged mice

Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) occur frequently after surgery, especially in aged patients. Surgery-induced neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PND. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) increases after surgical stress and will be involved in BBB dysfunction. However, the effect of IL-17A on BBB function during...

Lipocalin 2 contributes to brain iron dysregulation but does not affect cognition, plaque load, and glial activation in the J20 Alzheimer mouse model

Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an acute-phase protein implicated in multiple neurodegenerative conditions. Interestingly, both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects have been described for Lcn2. Increased Lcn2 levels were found in human post-mortem Alzheimer (AD) brain tissue, and in vitro studies indicated that Lcn2 aggravates amyloid-β-induced toxicity. However, the role of Lcn2...

Phosphatidylserine-microbubble targeting-activated microglia/macrophage in inflammation combined with ultrasound for breaking through the blood–brain barrier

Inflammatory reaction plays a crucial role in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. It has been shown that activated microglia long-term existed in cerebral ischemia and induced second injury. Therefore, we hypothesize that prepared phosphatidylserine (PS)-modified microbubbles (PS-MBs) combined with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) can safely open the...

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 controls protein kinase A activation state through phosphodiesterase 4

Evidence indicates a cross-regulation between two kinases, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and protein kinase A (PKA). In neurons, LRRK2 negatively regulates PKA activity in spiny projecting neurons during synaptogenesis and in response to dopamine D1 receptor activation acting as an A-anchoring kinase protein (AKAP). In microglia cells, we showed that LRRK2 kinase activity...

Reduced gut microbiome protects from alcohol-induced neuroinflammation and alters intestinal and brain inflammasome expression

The end-organ effects of alcohol span throughout the entire body, from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system (CNS). In the intestine, alcohol use changes the microbiome composition and increases gut permeability allowing translocation of microbial components into the circulation. Gut-derived pathogen-associated signals initiate inflammatory responses in the...

Circulating EZH2-positive T cells are decreased in multiple sclerosis patients

Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggest an involvement of the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2) in important processes such as cell adhesion and migration. Here, we aimed to expand these initial observations by investigating the role of EZH2 in MS...

Innate immune activation of astrocytes impairs neurodevelopment via upregulation of follistatin-like 1 and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3

Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (polyI:C) triggers a strong innate immune response that mimics immune activation by viral infections. Induction of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (Ifitm3) in astrocytes has a crucial role in polyI:C-induced neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Through a quantitative proteomic screen, we previously identified candidate astroglial...

Effects of methylprednisolone on blood-brain barrier and cerebral inflammation in cardiac surgery—a randomized trial

Cognitive dysfunction is a frequent complication to open-heart surgery. Cerebral inflammation caused by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction due to a systemic inflammatory response is considered a possible etiology. The effects of the glucocorticoid, methylprednisolone, on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of BBB function, neuroinflammation, and brain injury in patients...

α1-antitrypsin mitigates NLRP3-inflammasome activation in amyloid β 1–42 -stimulated murine astrocytes

Neuroinflammation has an essential impact on the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mostly mediated by microglia and astrocytes, inflammatory processes lead to degeneration of neuronal cells. The NLRP3-inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is a key component of the innate immune system and its activation results in secretion of...

Interaction of systemic oxidative stress and mesial temporal network degeneration in Parkinson’s disease with and without cognitive impairment

To identify the vulnerable areas associated with systemic oxidative stress and further disruption of these vulnerable areas by measuring the associated morphology and functional network alterations in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with and without cognitive impairment. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board of KCGMH, and written informed consent...

Analyses of gene expression profiles in the rat dorsal horn of the spinal cord using RNA sequencing in chronic constriction injury rats

Neuropathic pain is caused by damage to the nervous system, resulting in aberrant pain, which is associated with gene expression changes in the sensory pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Wistar rats were employed for the establishment of the chronic constriction injury (CCI) models. Using the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform, we examined...

Microglia prevent peripheral immune cell invasion and promote an anti-inflammatory environment in the brain of APP-PS1 transgenic mice

Undoubtedly, neuroinflammation is a major contributor to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. Neuroinflammation is characterized by the activity of brain resident glial cells, in particular microglia, but also by peripheral immune cells, which infiltrate the brain at certain stages of disease progression. The specific role of microglia in shaping AD pathology is still...