Parasites & Vectors

http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/

List of Papers (Total 3,206)

Efficacy and side effects of doxycycline versus minocycline in the three-dose melarsomine canine adulticidal heartworm treatment protocol

The American Heartworm Society currently recommends the use of a monthly macrocyclic lactone, a 28-day course of 10 mg/kg doxycycline BID, and the 3-dose protocol of melarsomine dihydrochloride for the treatment of canine heartworm disease. Doxycycline is necessary for the reduction of the bacterium Wolbachia, found in all heartworm life-stages. Previous price increases and...

Coxiella -like bacteria in fowl ticks from Thailand

Coxiella bacteria were identified from various tick species across the world. Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii that most commonly infects a variety of mammals. Non-mammalian hosts, such as birds, have also been reported to be infected with the pathogenic form of “Candidatus Coxiella avium”. This research increases the list of tick species...

Mapping of the complement C1q binding site on Trichinella spiralis paramyosin

Trichinella spiralis is a tissue-dwelling parasite has developed the ability to evade the host immune attack to establish parasitism in a host. One of the strategies evolved by the nematode is to produce proteins that immunomodulate the host immune system. TsPmy is a paramyosin secreted by T. spiralis on the surface of larvae and adult worms that can interact with complement...

Identification and molecular characterization of a novel Babesia orientalis thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (BoTRAP1)

The thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family, a kind of transmembrane protein, is widely distributed with a conserved feature of structure in all apicomplexan parasites and plays a crucial role in the gliding motility and survival of parasites. The Babesia orientalis TRAP1 gene (BoTRAP1) was truncated and cloned into a pET-42b expression vector and expressed as a...

Identification of novel multi-stage histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that impair Schistosoma mansoni viability and egg production

Novel anti-schistosomal multi-stage drugs are needed because only a single drug, praziquantel, is available for the treatment of schistosomiasis and is poorly effective on larval and juvenile stages of the parasite. Schistosomes have a complex life-cycle and multiple developmental stages in the intermediate and definitive hosts. Acetylation and deacetylation of histones play...

Evaluation of rapid extraction and isothermal amplification techniques for the detection of Leishmania donovani DNA from skin lesions of suspected cases at the point of need in Sri Lanka

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by vector-borne protozoans. In Sri Lanka, the cutaneous form of the disease is predominant, which is usually diagnosed using Giemsa-stained slit skin smear examination and by histology. However, the sensitivity of slit skin smears and histology are reportedly low. Moreover, facilities for the highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are...

The PAGODAS protocol: pediatric assessment group of dengue and Aedes saliva protocol to investigate vector-borne determinants of Aedes -transmitted arboviral infections in Cambodia

Mosquito-borne arboviruses, like dengue virus, continue to cause significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly in Southeast Asia. When the infectious mosquitoes probe into human skin for a blood meal, they deposit saliva containing a myriad of pharmacologically active compounds, some of which alter the immune response and influence host receptivity to infection, and...

Recent advances on Dirofilaria repens in dogs and humans in Europe

Dirofilaria repens is a nematode affecting domestic and wild canids, transmitted by several species of mosquitoes. It usually causes a non-pathogenic subcutaneous infection in dogs and is the principal agent of human dirofilariosis in the Old World. In the last decades, D. repens has increased in prevalence in areas where it has already been reported and its distribution range...

Field evaluation of personal protection methods against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Lao PDR

Protecting people outdoors against mosquito-borne diseases is a major challenge. Here we compared commercially available personal protection methods to identify the most effective method for outdoor use in northern Lao PDR. From June to August 2016 the protective efficacy of treatments were compared in a secondary forest during the afternoon and a village during the evening...

Molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in canine population and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ( sensu lato ) ticks from southern Metro Manila and Laguna, Philippines

The tropical climate of the Philippines and the high population of dogs, particularly in cities, favors the life-cycle of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato), a vector of several canine tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) including zoonotic Rickettsia spp. Suspected cases of infections are commonly encountered in veterinary clinics, but the specific TBPs are rarely...

Epidemiology of Taenia saginata taeniosis/cysticercosis in the Russian Federation

Russia is traditionally an endemic area for Taenia saginata infection, where a programme for the prevention of infection has been implemented for sixty years. This paper aims, therefore, to review the recent epidemiology data of Taenia saginata infection in the Russian Federation. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature, and official data for information...

Phylogenetic analysis of Spirocerca lupi and Spirocerca vulpis reveal high genetic diversity and intra-individual variation

Spirocerca lupi is a parasitic nematode of canids that can lead to a severe and potentially fatal disease. Recently, a new species, Spirocerca vulpis, was described from red foxes in Europe, suggesting a high genetic diversity of the Spirocerca spp. infecting canids. The genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of S. lupi collected from naturally-infected domestic dogs...

Comparative dynamics of peritoneal cell immunophenotypes in sheep during the early and late stages of the infection with Fasciola hepatica by flow cytometric analysis

The peritoneal cell populations (PCP) are thought to play a crucial role during the early immune response in Fasciola hepatica infection while newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) are migrating in the peritoneal cavity (PC) towards the liver. In this study, we aimed to determine the immunophenotypes of the PCP and to analyse the dynamics of the recruitment of the PCP during the early...

Prevalence of intestinal parasites and the absence of soil-transmitted helminths in Añatuya, Santiago del Estero, Argentina

Intestinal parasites (IP) have been reported in point studies from different provinces of Argentina. The presence of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) was detected in many of these studies, including varied prevalences of all five species of STH in the north were the climate is more appropriate for transmission. Nonetheless, Argentina lacks a comprehensive prevalence map of STH...

Genetic variability of the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito in El Salvador, vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika

Aedes aegypti is associated with dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. This vector is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas, and can also occur in temperate areas at higher latitudes. The geographical distribution of Ae. aegypti continues to spread due to human activities. This is the first study to examine the population genetic structure of this insect in...

Basal position of two new complete mitochondrial genomes of parasitic Cymothoida (Crustacea: Isopoda) challenges the monophyly of the suborder and phylogeny of the entire order

Isopoda is a highly diverse order of crustaceans with more than 10,300 species, many of which are parasitic. Taxonomy and phylogeny within the order, especially those of the suborder Cymothoida Wägele, 1989, are still debated. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are a useful tool for phylogenetic studies, but their availability for isopods is very limited. To explore these phylogenetic...

A randomized, blinded, controlled trial to assess sand fly mortality of fluralaner administered orally in dogs

Leishmania infantum is the parasite responsible for the disease in humans known as zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). Dogs are considered the main domestic reservoir of ZVL and sand flies are the proven vectors. The use of systemic insecticides in dogs has been studied as an alternative strategy to control ZVL in endemic areas. One systemic insecticide in dogs, fluralaner...

Genetic polymorphism and natural selection in the C-terminal 42 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) among Plasmodium knowlesi samples from Malaysia

The merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) gene encodes for a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its extensive polymorphic nature represents a major obstacle to the development of a protective vaccine. Previously, a pilot study was carried out to explore the sequence variation of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within P. knowlesi MSP-1 gene (PkMSP-142) based on 12...

Molecular characterization of a 31 kDa protein from Trichinella spiralis and its induced immune protection in BALB/c mice

Trichinella spiralis is an important foodborne zoonotic parasite and it is necessary to develop a vaccine in order to interrupt transmission from animals to humans. A 31 kDa protein from T. spiralis (Ts31) is an antigen targeted by protective antibodies, and Ts31 contains a domain of trypsin-like serine protease that might have the function of serine protease. The purpose of this...

“ Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected near the Arctic Circle in Norway

“Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” is a gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae that, in Europe, is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. “Candidatus N. mikurensis” can cause a severe systemic inflammatory syndrome, neoehrlichiosis, mostly in persons with other underlying diseases. To date, “Ca. N. mikurensis” has been found in ticks in different...

Characterization and functionality of two members of the SPFH protein superfamily, prohibitin 1 and 2 in Leishmania major

Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, infects roughly 12 million people worldwide, with about two million new cases per year. Prohibitins (PHBs) are highly conserved proteins belonging to the stomatin-prohibitin flotillin-HflC/K (SPFH) protein superfamily. In this study, we examine the potential functions of two proteins of Leishmania major, PHB1...

Insecticide resistance status, frequency of L1014F Kdr and G119S Ace-1 mutations, and expression of detoxification enzymes in Anopheles gambiae ( s.l. ) in two regions of northern Benin in preparation for indoor residual spraying

This study aims to provide baseline data on the resistance status to insecticides, the frequency of mechanisms involved and the impact of the association with the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on resistant Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) populations in two regions of northern Benin, prior to an indoor residual spraying campaign and introduction of next generation long-lasting...

Landscape structure affects the prevalence and distribution of a tick-borne zoonotic pathogen

Landscape structure can affect pathogen prevalence and persistence with consequences for human and animal health. Few studies have examined how reservoir host species traits may interact with landscape structure to alter pathogen communities and dynamics. Using a landscape of islands and mainland sites we investigated how natural landscape fragmentation affects the prevalence and...

Species delimitation based on mtDNA genes suggests the occurrence of new species of Mesocestoides in the Mediterranean region

This study is the first contribution to the molecular taxonomy of Mesocestoides spp. from domestic and wild carnivores in the Mediterranean area. A total of 13 adult worms and 13 larval stages of Mesocestoides spp. were collected from domestic and wild carnivore hosts in Italy and Tunisia. Samples collected in the Slovak Republic were used as comparative samples from outside the...

Wing morphometric variability in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from different urban built environments

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the dengue, Zika and several other arboviruses. It is highly adapted to urbanized environments and can be found worldwide. Mosquito population control is considered the best strategy for fighting mosquito-borne diseases, making an understanding of their population dynamics vital for the development of more effective vector control programs...