Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms

PLOS ONE, Jun 2015

Michael A. Ruggiero, Dennis P. Gordon, Thomas M. Orrell, Nicolas Bailly, Thierry Bourgoin, Richard C. Brusca, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Michael D. Guiry, Paul M. Kirk

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Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms

June Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms Michael A. Ruggiero Dennis P. Gordon Thomas M. Orrell Nicolas Bailly Thierry Bourgoin Richard C. Brusca Thomas Cavalier-Smith Michael D. Guiry Paul M. Kirk There are a number of errors in Tables 1 and 2. Please see the corrected Tables 1 and 2 here. The S1 Table Supporting Information file incorrectly spells "Pseudanabaenales” and is also corrected here. - OPEN ACCESS Superkingdom Subkingdom Infrakingdom Superphylum Infraphylum Main ranks are in bold type; unnamed taxa are not counted. SUPERKINGDOM PROKARYOTA KINGDOM ARCHAEA [= ARCHAEBACTERIA] Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota SUBKINGDOM NEGIBACTERIA Phylum Acidobacteria PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130114 June 11, 2015 Class Thermoprotei [= Crenarchaeota] Class “Aigarchaeota” Class “Korarchaeota” Class “Thaumarchaeota” Class Archaeoglobi Class Halobacteria Class Methanobacteria Class Methanococci Class “Methanomicrobia” Class “Nanohaloarchaea” Class Methanopyri Class Thermococci Class Thermoplasmata Class N.N. (Bryobacter) Class Acidobacteria Order N.N. ("Ca. Caldiarchaeum") Order N.N. ("Ca. Korarchaeum") Order Cenarchaeales Order Acidilobales Order Desulfurococcales Order Fervidicoccales Order Sulfolobales Order Thermoproteales Order Archaeoglobales Order Halobacteriales Order Methanobacteriales Order Methanococcales Order Methanocellales Order Methanomicrobiales Order Methanosarcinales Order Methanopyrales Order N.N. (e.g., "Ca. Nanosalinarum") Order Thermococcales Order Thermoplasmatales (Continued ) 2 / 54 Phylum Aquificae Phylum Armatimonadetes Phylum Bacteroidetes Phylum Caldiserica Phylum Chlamydiae Phylum Chlorobi Phylum Chrysiogenetes Class Holophagae Class Aquificae Class Armatimonadia Class Chthonomonadetes Class Fimbriimonadia Class Bacteroidia Class Cytophagia Class Flavobacteria Class Sphingobacteriia Class Caldisericia Class Chlamydiae Class Chlorobea Class Ignavibacteria Class Chrysiogenetes Order Acidobacteriales Order Acanthopleuribacterales Order Holophagales Order Aquificales Order Armatimonadales Order Chthonomonadales Order Fimbriimonadales Order Bacteroidales Order Cytophagales Order Flavobacteriales Order Sphingobacteriales Order Caldisericales Order Chlamydiales Order Chlorobiales Order Ignavibacteriales Order Chrysiogenales Order Chroococcales Order Nostocales Order Oscillatoriales Order Pseudanabaenales (Continued ) 3 / 54 Phylum Deferribacteres Class Deferribacteres Class Deinococci Phylum Dictyoglomi Phylum Elusimicrobia Phylum Fibrobacteres Phylum Fusobacteria Phylum Gemmatimonadetes Phylum Lentisphaerae Phylum Nitrospira Phylum Planctomycetes Phylum Proteobacteria Class Dictyoglomia Class Elusimicrobia Class Fibrobacteria Class Fusobacteriia Class Gemmatimonadetes Class Lentisphaeria Class Oligosphaeria Class "Nitrospira" Class Phycisphaerae Class Planctomycea Order Synechococcales Order Gloeobacterales Order Deferribacterales Order Deinococcales Order Thermales Order Dictyoglomales Order Elusimicrobiales Order Fibrobacterales Order Fusobacteriales Order Gemmatimonadales Order Lentisphaerales Order Victivallales Order Oligosphaerales Order "Nitrospirales" Order Phycisphaerales Order Planctomycetales (Continued ) 4 / 54 Class Alphaproteobacteria Class Betaproteobacteria Class Deltaproteobacteria Order N.N. (e.g., Breoghania) Order Caulobacterales Order Kiloniellales Order Kordiimonadales Order Magnetococcales Order “Parvularculales” Order Rhizobiales Order Rhodobacterales Order Rhodospirillales Order Rickettsiales Order Sneathiellales Order Sphingomonadales Order N.N. (Chitinivorax) Order Burkholderiales Order Hydrogenophilales Order Methylophilales Order Neisseriales Order Nitrosomonadales Order "Procabacteriales" Order Rhodocyclales Order N.N. (e.g., Deferrisoma) Order Bdellovibrionales Order Desulfarculales Order Desulfobacterales Order Desulfovibrionales Order Desulfurellales Order Desulfuromonadales Order Myxococcales Order Syntrophobacterales Class Epsilonproteobacteria Order Campylobacterales Order Nautiliales Class Gammaproteobacteria Order N.N. (e.g., Alkalimonas) Order Acidithiobacillales Order Aeromonadales Order Alteromonadales Order Cardiobacteriales Order Chromatiales Order “Enterobacteriales” Order Legionellales Order Methylococcales Order Oceanospirillales Order Orbales Order Pasteurellales (Continued ) 5 / 54 Phylum Spirochaetae Phylum Synergistetes Phylum Thermodesulfobacteria Phylum Thermotogae Phylum Verrucomicrobia SUBKINGDOM POSIBACTERIA Phylum Actinobacteria Class Zetaproteobacteria Class "Spirochaetes" Class Synergistia Class Thermotogae Class Opitutae Class Verrucomicrobiae Class Actinobacteria Class Thermodesulfobacteria Order Thermodesulfobacteriales Order Pseudomonadales Order “Salinisphaerales” Order Thiotrichales Order “Vibrionales” Order Xanthomonadales Order Mariprofundales Order Spirochaetales Order Synergistales Order Thermotogales Order Opitutales Order Puniceicoccales Order Verrucomicrobiales Order Acidimicrobiales Order Actinomycetales Order Bifidobacteriales Order Coriobacteriales Order Euzebyales Order Gaiellales Order Nitriliruptorales Order Rubrobacterales Order Solirubrobacterales Order Thermoleophilales Order Anaerolineales Order Caldilineales Class Anaerolineae Class Caldilineae (Continued ) 6 / 54 Phylum Firmicutes Phylum Tenericutes SUPERKINGDOM EUKARYOTA KINGDOM PROTOZOA SUBKINGDOM EOZOA INFRAKINGDOM EUGLENOZOA Phylum Euglenozoa Subphylum N.N. Class Chloroflexia Class Dehalococcoidia Class Ktedonobacteria Class Thermomicrobia Class Clostridia Class Erysipelotrichia Class Negativicutes Class Thermolithobacteria Class Mollicutes Order Chloroflexales Order Herpetosiphonales Order Dehalococcoidales Order Ktedonobacterales Order Thermogemmatisporales Order Sphaerobacterales Order Thermomicrobiales Order Bacillales Order Lactobacillales Order Clostridiales Order Halanaerobiales Order Natranaerobiales Order Thermoanaerobacterales Order Erysipelotrichales Order Selenomonadales Order Thermolithobacterales Order Acholeplasmatales Order Anaeroplasmatales Order Entomoplasmatales Order Haloplasmatales Order Mycoplasmatales Class Diplonemea Order Diplonemida (Continued ) 7 / 54 Subphylum Euglenoida Subphylum Symbiontida INFRAKINGDOM EXCAVATA Phylum Loukozoa Subphylum Eolouka Subphylum Neolouka Phylum Metamonada Class Kinetoplastea Class Euglenophyceae Class Peranemea Class Postgaardea Class Jakobea Class Tsukubea Class Malawimonadea Class Anaeromonadea Class Carpomonadea Class Eopharyngea Class Trichomonadea Order Bodonida Order Prokinetoplastida Order Trypanosomatida Order Petalomonadida Order Ploeotiida Order Euglenida Order Eutreptiida Order Heteronemida Order Peranemida Order Rhabdomonadida Order Postgaardida Order Jakobida Order Tsukubamonadida Order Malawimonadida Order Oxymonadida Order Trimastigida Order Carpediemonadida Order Chilomastigida Order Dysnectida Order Diplomonadida Order Retortamonadida Order Cristamonadida Order Spirotrichonymphida Order Trichomonadida (Continued) 8 / 54 SUBKINGDOM SARCOMASTIGOTA Phylum Amoebozoa Subphylum Phylum Percolozoa Subphylum Pharyngomonada Class Pharyngomonadea Subphylum Tetramitia Class Trichonymphea Class Heterolobosea Class Lyromonadea Class Percolatea Class Archamoebea Class Dictyostelea Class Protostelea Class Variosea Order Tritrichomonadida Order Lophomonadida Order Trichonymphida Order Pharyngomonadida Order Acrasida Order Schizopyrenida Order Lyromonadida Order Percolomonadida Order Pseudociliatida Order Mastigamoebida Order Pelobiontida Order Rhizomastigida Order Dictyostelida Class Myxogastrea [= Myxomycetes] Subclass Exosporeae Order Ceratiomyxida Subclass Myxogastria Superorder Collumelidia Order Echinosteliida Order Fuscisporida Superorder Lucisporidia Order Liceida Order Trichiida Order Protostelida Order Artodiscida Order Holomastigida Order Phalansteriida Order Varipodida (Continued) 9 / 54 Subphylum Lobosa (Continued) 10 / 54 Subphylum Choanofila Subphylum Paramycia Class Metchnikovellea Order N.N. (e.g., Nosema) Order Metchnikovellida Class Tubulinea [= Lobosea] Class Choanoflagellatea Class Corallochytrea Class Filasterea Class Ichthyosporea Class Aphelidea Class Cristidiscoidea Class Rozellidea Order Dactylopodida Order Himatismenida Order Pellitida Order Stygamoebida Order Trichosida Order Vanellida Subclass Longamoebia Order Dermamoebida Order Centramoebida Order Thecamoebida Order Acanthoecida Order Craspedida Order Corallochytrida Order Ministeriida Order Dermocystida Order Eccrinida Order Aphelidida Order Fonticulida Order Nucleariida KINGDOM CHROMISTA SUBKINGDOM HACROBIA Phylum Sulcozoa Subphylum Apusozoa Subphylum Varisulca Phylum Cryptista Subphylum Palpitia Subphylum Rollomonadia Class Pleistophorea Class Breviatea Class Thecomonadea Class Diphyllatea Class Glissodiscea Class Hilomonadea Class Endohelea Class Picomonadea Class Telonemea Class Palpitea Class Cryptophyceae Class Goniomonadea Class Leucocryptea Order Pleistophorida Order Breviatida Order Apusomonadida Order Diphylleida Order Mantamonadida Order Planomonadida Order Rigifilida Order Heliomonadida Order Microhelida Order Picomonadida Order Telonemida Order Palpitida Order Cryptomonadales Order Pyrenomonadales Order Tetragonidiales Order Goniomonadida Order Kathablepharida (Continued) 11 / 54 Phylum Haptophyta Phylum Heliozoa INFRAKINGDOM HALVARIA Class Pavlovophyceae Class Centrohelea Class Colpodea Class Spirotrichea Class Coccolithophyceae [= Prymnesiophyceae] Order Coccolithales Order Coccosphaerales Order Isochrysidales Order Phaeocystales Order Prymnesiales Order Syracosphaerales Order Zygodiscales Order Pavlovales Order Acanthocystida Order Pterocystida Order Armophorida Order Clevelandellida Order Bryometopida Order Bryophryida Order Bursariomorphida Order Colpodida Order Cyrtolophosidida Order Sorogenida Order Cyclotrichiida Order Haptorida Order Pleurostomatida Subclass Trichostomatia Order Entodiniomorphida Order Macropodiniida Order Vestibuliferida Subclass Choreotrichia (Continued) 12 / 54 Class Nassophorea Class Oligohymenophorea Subclass Astomatia Subclass Peniculia Subclass Peritrichia Class Phyllopharyngea Order Tintinnida Subclass Hypotrichia Order Euplotida Order Kiitrichida Subclass Licnophoria Order Licnophorida Subclass Oligotrichia Order Strombidiida Subclass Protocruziidia Order Phacodiniida Order Protocruziida Subclass Stichotrichia Order Sporadotrichida Order Stichotrichida Order Urostylida Order Colpodidiida Order Microthoracida Order Nassulida Order Synhymeniida Subclass Apostomatia Order Apostomatida Order Astomatophorida Order Pilisuctorida Order Astomatida Subclass Hymenostomatia Order Ophyroglenida Order Tetrahymenida Order Peniculida Order Urocentrida Order Mobilida Order Sessilida Subclass Scuticociliatia Order Philasterida Order Pleuronematida Order Thigmotrichida Subclass Chonotrichia Order Cryptogemmida Order Exogemmiida (Continued) 13 / 54 Subclass Suctoria Subphylum Postciliodesmatophora Class Heterotrichea Class Plagiopylea Class Prostomatea Class Karyorelictea Phylum Miozoa Subphylum Myzozoa Infraphylum Apicomplexa Superclass Apicomonada Class Apicomonadea Class Coccidiomorphea Subclass Coccidia Subclass Cyrtophoria Order Chlamydodontida Order Dysteriida Subclass Rhynchodia Order Hypocomatida Order Rhynchodida Order Endogenida Order Evaginogenida Order Exogenida Order Odontostomatida Order Plagiopylida Order Prorodontida Order Prostomatida Order Heterotrichida Order Loxodida Order Protoheterotrichida Order Protostomatida Order Chromerida Order Colpodellida Order Voromonadida Order Blastogregarinida Order Adeleida Order Eimeriida Order Ixorheida Subclass Coelotrophia Order Coelotrophiida [= Protococcidiida] (Continued) 14 / 54 Subclass Hematozoa Class Gregarinomorphea Class Paragregarea Superclass Dinoflagellata Subclass Suessioidia Class Ellobiopsea Class Noctilucea Superorder Aconoidia Order Nephromycida Order Piroplasmida Superorder Haemosporidia Order Haemosporida Subclass Cryptogregaria Order Cryptogregarida (Cryptosporidium) Subclass Histogregaria Order Histogregarida Subclass Orthogregarinia Order Arthrogregarida Order Vermigregarida Order Archigregarinida Order Stenophorida Order Velocida Order Actiniscales Order Blastodinales Order Coccidinales Order Dinamoebales Order Lophodinales Order Pyrocystales Order Thoracosphaerales Subclass Dinophysoidia Order Dinophysidales Order Nannoceratopsales Subclass Gonyaulacoidia Order Gonyaulacales Order Gymnodiniales Subclass Peridinoidia Order Peridiniales Order Prorocentrales Order Suessiales Order Ellobiopsida (Continued) 15 / 54 Subphylum Protalveolata Class Oxyrrhea Class Syndinea Superclass Perkinsozoa Class Myzomonadea Class Perkinsea Class Squirmidea Class Colponemea Class Bikosea Class Blastocystea Class Nanomonadea Class Opalinea Class Labyrinthulea Order Noctilucida Order Acrocoelida Order Oxyrrhida Order Rastrimonadida Order Syndinida Order Algovorida Order Perkinsida Order Phagodinida Order Squirmida Order Colponemida Order Blastocystida Order Uniciliatida Order Opalinida Order Proteromonadida Order Labyrinthulida Order Thraustochytriida Class Placididea [= Placidiophyceae] Order Placidiida Class Bacillariophyceae [= Diatomeae] Subclass Bacillariophycidae Order Achnanthales Order Bacillariales Order Cymbellales (Continued) 16 / 54 Order Dictyoneidales Order Eunotiales Order Lyrellales Order Mastogloiales Order Naviculales Order Rhopalodiales Order Surirellales Order Thalassiophysales Subclass Coscinodiscophycidae Order Anaulales Order Arachnoidiscales Order Asterolamprales Order Aulacoseirales Order Biddulphiales Order Chaetocerotales Order Chrysanthemodiscales Order Corethrales Order Coscinodiscales Order Cymatosirales Order Ethmodiscales Order Hemiaulales Order Leptocylindrales Order Lithodesmiales Order Melosirales Order Orthoseirales Order Paraliales Order Rhizosoleniales Order Stictocyclales Order Stictodiscales Order Thalassiosirales Order Triceratiales Subclass Fragilariophycidae Order Ardissoneales Order Climacospheniales Order Cyclophorales Order Fragilariales Order Licmophorales Order Protoraphidales Order Rhabdonematales Order Rhaphoneidales Order Striatellales Order Tabellariales Order Thalassionematales Order Toxariales Class Bolidophyceae Order Parmales [= Bolidomonadales] (Continued ) 17 / 54 Class Chrysomerophyceae Class Chrysophyceae Class Eustigmatophyceae Order Chrysomeridales Order Chloramoebales Order Chromulinales Order Chrysosphaerales Order Heterogloeales Order Hibberdiales Order Hydrurales Order Ochromonadales Order Paraphysomonadida Order Synurales Order Thallochrysidales Class Phaeophyceae Order Eustigmatales Class Dictyochophyceae [= Hypogyristea] Order Dictyochales Order Olisthodiscales Order Pedinellales Order Pelagomonadales Order Sarcinochrysidales Subclass Dictypophycidae Order Dictyotales Order Onslowiales Order Sphacelariales Order Syringodermatales Subclass Discosporangiophycidae Order Discosporangiales Subclass Fucophycidae Order Ascoseirales Order Asterocladales Order Desmarestiales Order Ectocarpales Order Fucales Order Laminariales Order Nemodermatales Order Phaeosiphoniellales Order Ralfsiales Order Scytothamnales Order Sporochnales Order Tilopteridales [= Cutleriales] Subclass Ishigeophycidae Order Ishigeales Class Phaeothamniophyceae [= Aurophyceae] Order Aurearenales (Continued) 18 / 54 Order Phaeothamniales Class Picophagophyceae [= Picophagea] Order Picophagales Order Synchromales Class Pinguiophyceae Class Raphidophyceae Class Schizocladiophyceae Class Xanthophyceae Class Bigyromonadea Class Hyphochytrea INFRAKINGDOM RHIZARIA Phylum Cercozoa Subphylum Endomyxa Class Ascetosporea Order Pinguiochrysidales Order Actinophryida Order Commatiida Order Raphidomonadales Order Schizocladiales Order Mischococcales Order Pleurochloridellales Order Tribonematales Order Vaucheriales Order Developayellida Order Hyphochytriida Order Pirsoniida Order Anisolpidiales Order Haptoglossales Order Lagenismatales Order Olpidiopsidales Order Rozellopsidales Subclass Peronosporidae Order Peronosporales Order Pythiales Order Rhipidiales Subclass Saprolegniidae Order Albuginales Order Leptomitales Order Salilagenidiales Order Saprolegniales Order Claustrosporida (Continued) 19 / 54 Subphylum Monadofilosa Class Gromiidea Class Phytomyxea Class Vampyrellidea Subclass Placoperla Class Metromonadea Class Sarcomonadea Order Haplosporida Order Paradinida Order Paramyxida Order Gromiida Order Reticulosida Order Phagomyxida Order Plasmodiophorida Order Vampyrellida Order Discocelida Order Discomonadida Order Euglyphida Order Marimonadida Order Variglissida Order Perlofilida Order Rotosphaerida Order Spongomonadida Order Thaumatomonadida Order Zoelucasida Order Metopiida Order Metromonadida Order Cercomonadida Order Glissomonadida Order Pansomonadida Order Pseudosporida Order Sainouroida Order Cryomonadida Order Ebriida Order Matazida Order Ventricleftida Subclass Phaeodaria Order Eodarida Order Opaloconchida (Continued) 20 / 54 Order Ceratophyllales Superorder Dillenianae Order Dilleniales Superorder Lilianae [= Monocotyledones] Order Acorales Order Alismatales Order Arecales Order Asparagales Order Commelinales Order Dasypogonales Order Dioscoreales Order Liliales Order Pandanales Order Petrosaviales Order Poales Order Zingiberales Superorder Magnolianae Order Canellales Order Chloranthales Order Laurales Order Magnoliales Order Piperales Superorder Myrothamnanae Order Gunnerales Superorder Nymphaeanae Order Nymphaeales Superorder Proteanae Order Proteales Superorder Ranunculanae Order Ranunculales Superorder Rosanae Order Brassicales Order Celastrales Order Crossosomatales Order Cucurbitales Order Fabales Order Fagales Order Geraniales Order Huerteales Order Malpighiales Order Malvales Order Myrtales Order Oxalidales Order Picramniales Order Rosales Order Sapindales Order Vitales Order Zygophyllales (Continued ) 33 / 54 KINGDOM ANIMALIA SUBKINGDOM N.N. Phylum Cnidaria Subphylum Anthozoa Subphylum Medusozoa Superclass “Gymnospermae” Class Cycadopsida Subclass Cycadidae Class Ginkgoopsida Class Gnetopsida Subclass Gnetidae Class Pinopsida Subclass Pinidae Class Anthozoa Class Cubozoa Class Hydrozoa Superorder Santalanae Order Santalales Superorder Saxifraganae Order Saxifragales Superorder Trochodendranae Order Trochodendrales Order Cycadales Subclass Ginkgooidae Order Ginkgoales Order Gnetales Order Pinales Subclass Hexacorallia Order Actiniaria Order Antipatharia Order Ceriantharia Order Corallimorpharia Order Scleractinia Order Zoantharia [= Zoanthidea] Subclass Octocorallia Order Alcyonacea Order Helioporacea Order Pennatulacea Order Carybdeida Order Chirodropida Subclass Hydroidolina Order Anthoathecata Order Gonoproxima Order Leptothecata (Continued) 34 / 54 Subphylum Myxozoa Phylum Ctenophora Phylum Placozoa Phylum Porifera Subclass Trachylina Class Polypodiozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Staurozoa Class Malacosporea Class Myxosporea Class Tentaculata Class Placozoa (Trichoplax) Class Calcarea Order Siphonophorae Order Actinulida Order Limnomedusae Order Narcomedusae Order Trachymedusae Order Polypodiidea Order Coronatae Order Rhizostomeae Order Semaeostomeae Order Stauromedusae Order Malacovalvulida Order Bivalvulida Order Multivalvulida Order Beroida Order Cambojiida Order Cestida Order Cryptolobiferida Order Cydippida Order Ganeshida Order Lobata Order Platyctenida Order Thalassocalycida Order Baerida Order Clathrinida Order Leucosolenida Order Lithonida Order Murrayonida (Continued) 35 / 54 SUBKINGDOM BILATERIA INFRAKINGDOM PROTOSTOMIA Superphylum N. N. Phylum Chaetognatha Phylum Orthonectida Phylum Rhombozoa Superphylum Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Chelicerata Class Demospongiae Class Hexactinellida Class Homoscleromorpha Class Sagittoidea Class Arachnida Order Agelasida Order Astrophorida Order Chondrosida Order Dendroceratida Order Dictyoceratida Order Hadromerida Order Halichondrida Order Haplosclerida Order Lithistida Order Poecilosclerida Order Spirophorida Order Verongida Order Amphidiscosida Order Aulocalycoida Order Fieldingida Order Hexactinosida Order Lychniscosida Order Lyssacinosida Order Homosclerophorida Order Aphragmophora Order Phragmophora Order Plasmodigenea Order Dicyemida Order Heterocyemida Superorder N.N. Order Amblypygi Order Araneae Order Opiliones Order Palpigradi Order Pseudoscorpiones (Continued) 36 / 54 Subphylum Crustacea Class Merostomata Class Pycnogonida Class Branchiopoda Class Cephalocarida Class Malacostraca Order Ricinulei Order Schizomida Order Scorpiones Order Solifugae Order Uropygi Superorder Acariformes Order Sarcoptiformes Order Trombidiformes Superorder Parasitiformes Order Holothyrida Order Ixodida Order Mesostigmata Order Opilioacarida Order Xiphosura Order Pantopoda Order Anostraca Order Diplostraca Order Laevicaudata Order Notostraca Order Brachypoda Subclass Eumalacostraca Superorder Eucarida Order Amphionidacea Order Decapoda Order Euphausiacea Superorder Peracarida Order Amphipoda Order Bochusacea Order Cumacea Order Isopoda Order Lophogastrida Order Mictacea Order Mysida Order Spelaeogriphacea Order Tanaidacea Order Thermosbaenacea Superorder Syncarida Order Anaspidacea (Continued) 37 / 54 Subclass Copepoda Order Bathynellacea Subclass Hoplocarida Order Stomatopoda Subclass Phyllocarida Order Leptostraca Order Arguloida Infraclass Neocopepoda Superorder Gymnoplea Order Calanoida Superorder Podoplea Order Cyclopoida Order Gelyelloida Order Harpacticoida Order Misophrioida Order Monstrilloida Order Mormonilloida Order Siphonostomatoida Infraclass Progymnoplea Order Platycopioida Subclass Mystacocarida Order Mystacocaridida Subclass Pentastomida Order Cephalobaenida Order Porocephalida Subclass Tantulocarida (e.g., Basipodellidae) Subclass Thecostraca Infraclass Ascothoracida Order Dendrogastrida Order Laurida Infraclass Cirripedia Superorder Acrothoracica Order Cryptophialida Order Lithoglyptida Superorder Rhizocephala Order Akentrogonida Order Kentrogonida Superorder Thoracica Order Ibliformes Order Lepadiformes Order Scalpelliformes Order Sessilia Infraclass Facetotecta (Hansenocaris) Class Ostracoda (Continued) 38 / 54 Subphylum Hexapoda Class Remipedia Class Collembola Class Diplura Class Insecta Subclass Dicondylia Subclass Pterygota Order Halocyprida Order Myodocopida Order Paleocopida Order Platycopida Order Podocopida Order Nectiopoda Order Entomobryomorpha Order Neelipleona Order Poduromorpha Order Symphypleona Order N.N. (e.g., Japygidae) Subclass Archaeognatha Order Archaeognatha Order Zygentoma Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Holometabola Order Coleoptera Order Diptera Order Hymenoptera Order Lepidoptera Order Mecoptera Order Siphonaptera Order Strepsiptera Order Trichoptera Superorder Neuropterida Order Megaloptera Order Neuroptera Order Raphidioptera Superorder Paraneoptera Order Hemiptera Order Psocodea Order Thysanoptera Superorder Polyneoptera Order Blattodea Order Dermaptera Order Embioptera Order Grylloblattodea Order Mantodea (Continued ) 39 / 54 Subphylum Myriapoda Class Protura Class Chilopoda Class Diplopoda Subclass Penicillata Class Pauropoda Order Mantophasmatodea Order Orthoptera Order Phasmida Order Plecoptera Order Zoraptera Infraclass Palaeoptera Order Ephemeroptera Order Odonata Order Acerentomata Order Eosentomata Order Sinentomata Order Craterostigmomorpha Order Geophilomorpha Order Lithobiomorpha Order Scolopendromorpha Order Scutigeromorpha Subclass Chilognatha Infraclass Helminthomorpha Superorder N.N. Order Platydesmida Order Polyzoniida Order Siphonocryptida Order Siphonophorida Superorder Juliformia Order Julida Order Spirobolida Order Spirostreptida Superorder Nematophora Order Callipodida Order Chordeumatida Order Stemmiulida Order Siphoniulida Superorder Merochaeta Order Polydesmida Infraclass Pentazonia Order Glomerida Order Glomeridesmida Order Sphaerotheriida Order Polyxenida Order Hexamerocerata (Continued ) 40 / 54 Order Tetramerocerata Class Symphyla (e.g., Scolopendrellidae) Phylum Kinorhyncha Phylum Loricifera Phylum Nematoda Class Chromadorea Subclass Plectia Class Dorylaimea Subclass Dorylaimia Class Enoplea Subclass Enoplia Order Cyclorhagida Order Homalorhagida Order Nanaloricida Subclass Chromadoria Order Chromadorida Order Desmodorida Order Desmoscolecida Order Selachinematida Superorder Monhysterica Order Monhysterida Superorder Plectica Order Benthimermithida Order Leptolaimida Order Plectida Superorder Rhabditica Order Diplogasterida Order Drilonematida Order Panagrolaimida Order Rhabditida Order Spirurida Superorder Teratocephalica Order Teratocephalida Subclass Bathyodontia Order Bathyodontida Order Mermithida Order Mononchida Order Dorylaimida Subclass Trichocephalia Order Dioctophymatida Order Marimermithida Order Muspiceida Order Trichocephalida Order Alaimida Order Enoplida (Continued) 41 / 54 Phylum Nematomorpha Phylum Onychophora Phylum Tardigrada Superphylum Spiralia [= Lophotrochozoa] Phylum Acanthocephala Phylum Annelida Subclass Triplonchia Class Udeonycophora Class Eutardigrada Class Heterotardigrada Class Archiacanthocephala Class Eoacanthocephala Class Palaeacanthocephala Class Polyacanthocephala Order Ironida Order Rhaptothyreida Order Trifusiida Order Tripyloidida Subclass Oncholaimia Order Oncholaimida Order Triplonchida Order Tripylida Order Gordioidea Order Nectonematoidea Order Euonycophora Class N.N. (e.g., Priapulidae) Order Apochela Order Parachela Order Arthrotardigrada Order Echiniscoidea Order Apororhynchida Order Gigantorhynchida Order Moniliformida Order Oligacanthorhynchida Order Gyracanthocephala Order Neoechinorhynchida Order Echinorhynchida Order Heteramorphida Order Polymorphida Order Polyacanthorhynchida Order Myzostomida (Continued) 42 / 54 Phylum Brachiopoda Phylum Bryozoa Subclass Hirudinea Subclass Echiura Subclass Errantia Subclass Sedentaria Class Craniata Class Lingulata Class Rhynchonellata Order Branchiobdellida Order Acanthobdellida Order Arhynchobdellida Order Rhynchobdellida Subclass Oligochaeta Superorder N.N. Order N.N. (Jennaria) Order Enchytraeida Order Haplotaxida Order Lumbriculida Order Tubificida Superorder Metagynophora Order Moniligastrida Order Opistophora Order N.N. (e.g., Nerillidae) Order Echiuroinea Order Heteromyota Order Xenopneusta Order Amphinomida Order Eunicida Order Phyllodocida Infraclass Canalipalpata Order Sabellida Order Spionida Order Terebellida Infraclass Scolecida (e.g., Arenicolidae) Order Craniida Order Lingulida Order Rhynchonellida Order Terebratulida Order Thecideida (Continued) 43 / 54 Phylum Cycliophora Phylum Entoprocta Phylum Gastrotricha Phylum Gnathostomulida Phylum Micrognathozoa Phylum Mollusca Class Gymnolaemata Class Phylactolaemata Class Stenolaemata Class Eucycliophora Class Micrognathozoa Class Bivalvia Order Cheilostomata Order Ctenostomata Order Plumatellida Order Cyclostomata Order Symbiida Order Coloniales Order Solitaria Order Chaetonotida Order Macrodasyida Order Bursovaginoidea Order Filospermoidea Order Limnognathida (Continued ) 44 / 54 Class Caudofoveata Class Gastropoda Order Chaetodermatida Superorder Decabrachia Order Sepiida Order Sepiolida Order Spirulida Order Teuthida Superorder Octobrachia Order Octopoda Order Vampyromorphida Subclass Nautiloidea Order Nautilida Subclass Caenogastropoda Order Littorinimorpha Order Neogastropoda Subclass Cocculiniformia (e.g., Cocculinidae) Subclass Heterobranchia Order Acochlidioidea Order Anaspidea Order Cephalaspidea Order Gymnosomata Order Hygrophila Order Nudibranchia Order Pleurobranchomorpha Order Runcinacea Order Sacoglossa Order Stylommatophora Order Systellommatophora Order Thecosomata Order Umbraculida Subclass Neomphalina Order N.N. (e.g., Neomphalidae) Subclass Neritimorpha Order Cycloneritimorpha Subclass Patellogastropoda Order N.N. (e.g., Patellidae) Subclass Vetigastropoda Order N.N. (e.g., Ataphridae) Class Monoplacophora Class Polyplacophora Order Tryblidiida Order Chitonida (Continued) 45 / 54 Phylum Nemertea Phylum Phoronida Phylum Platyhelminthes Subphylum Catenulidea Subphylum Rhabditophora Class Scaphopoda Class Solenogastres Class Anopla Class Enopla Class N.N. (e.g., Phoronis) Class Macrostomorpha Class Neoophora Order Lepidopleurida Order Dentaliida Order Gadilida Superorder Aplotegmentaria Order Cavibelonia Order Sterrofustia Superorder Pachytegmentaria Order Neomeniamorpha Order Pholidoskepia Order N.N. (e.g., Gorgonorhynchidae) Order Monostilifera Order Polystilifera Class Paleonemertea (e.g., Carinomidae) Order Catenulida Order Haplopharyngida Order Macrostomida Subclass Eulecithophora Infraclass Adiaphanida Order Fecampiida Order Prolecithophora Order Tricladida Infraclass Rhabdocoela Order Dalytyphloplanida Order Endoaxonemata Order Kalyptorhynchia Subclass Neodermata Infraclass Cestoda Order Amphilinidea Order Bothriocephalidea Order Caryophyllidea (Continued) 46 / 54 Phylum Rotifera Phylum Sipuncula Order Cyclophyllidea Order Diphyllidea Order Diphyllobothriidea Order Gyrocotylidea Order Lecanicephalidea Order Litobothridea Order Proteocephalidea Order Pseudophyllidea Order Rhinebothriidea Order Spathebothriidea Order Tetrabothriidea Order Tetraphyllidea Order Trypanorhyncha Infraclass Monogenea Order Capsalidea Order Chimaericolidea Order Dactylogyridea Order Diclybothriidea Order Gyrodactylidea Order Mazocraeidea Order Monocotylidea Order Montchadskyellidea Order Polystomatidea Infraclass Trematoda Order Aspidogastrida Order Diplostomida Order Plagiorchiida Order Stichocotylida Order Lecithoepitheliata Order Polycladida Order Proseriata Order Collothecaceae Order Flosculariaceae Order Ploima Order Seisonacea Subclass Bdelloidea (e.g., Adinetidae) Class Polycladidea Class Eurotatoria Subclass Proseriatia Subclass Monogonta Class Pararotatoria Class Phascolosomatidea (Continued) 47 / 54 INFRAKINGDOM DEUTEROSTOMIA Phylum Chordata Subphylum Cephalochordata Subphylum Urochordata Class Sipunculidea Class Appendicularia Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Cephalaspidomorphi Class Myxini Subphylum Vertebrata [= Craniata] Infraphylum Agnatha Infraphylum Gnathostomata Superclass Actinopterygii Class Chondrostei Class Cladistei Class Holostei Class Teleostei Order Aspidosiphoniformes Order Phascolosomatiformes Order Golfingiiformes Order Sipunculiformes Order Amphioxiformes Order Copelata Order Enterogona Order Pleurogona Order Doliolida Order Pyrosomida Order Salpida Order Petromyzontiformes Order Myxiniformes Order Acipenseriformes Order Polypteriformes Order Amiiformes Order Lepisosteiformes Order Acanthuriformes Order Albuliformes Order Alepocephaliformes Order Anabantiformes Order Anguilliformes Order Argentiniformes Order Ateleopodiformes Order Atheriniformes Order Aulopiformes (Continued) 48 / 54 Order Batrachoidiformes Order Beloniformes Order Beryciformes Order Blenniiformes Order Carangiformes Order Centrarchiformes Order Characiformes Order Cichliformes Order Cirrhitiformes Order Clupeiformes Order Cypriniformes Order Cyprinodontiformes Order Elopiformes Order Ephippiformes Order Esociformes Order Gadiformes Order Galaxiiformes Order Gobiiformes Order Gonorynchiformes Order Gymnotiformes Order Hidontiformes Order Holocentriformes Order Istiophoriformes Order Kurtiformes Order Labriformes Order Lampridiformes Order Lepidogalaxiiformes Order Lobotiformes Order Lophiiformes Order Mugiliformes Order Myctophiformes Order Notacanthiformes Order Ophidiiformes Order Osmeriformes Order Osteoglossiformes Order Pempheriformes Order Perciformes Order Percopsiformes Order Pholidichthyiformes Order Pleuronectiformes Order Polymixiiformes Order Salmoniformes Order Scombriformes Order Siluriformes Order Spariformes Order Stomiatiformes Order Stylephoriformes Order Synbranchiformes (Continued) 49 / 54 Superclass Chondrichthyes Class Elasmobranchii Class Holocephali Superclass Sarcopterygii Class Coelacanthi Class Dipnoi Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Mammalia Subclass Theria Order Syngnathiformes Order Terapontiformes Order Tetraodontiformes Order Uranoscopiformes Order Zeiformes Order Carcharhiniformes Order Heterodontiformes Order Hexanchiformes Order Lamniformes Order Myliobatiformes Order Orectolobiformes Order Pristiformes Order Pristiophoriformes Order Rajiformes Order Squaliformes Order Squatiniformes Order Torpediniformes Order Chimaeriformes Order Coelacanthiformes Order Ceratodontiformes Order Lepidosirenoformes Order Anura Order Caudata Order Gymnophiona Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Infraclass Eutheria [= Placentalia] Order Afrosoricida Order Artiodactyla Order Carnivora Order Cetacea Order Chiroptera Order Cingulata Order Dermoptera Order Erinaceomorpha (Continued ) 50 / 54 Class Reptilia Subclass Aves Order Hyracoidea Order Lagomorpha Order Macroscelidea Order Perissodactyla Order Pholidota Order Pilosa Order Primates Order Proboscidea Order Rodentia Order Scandentia Order Sirenia Order Soricomorpha Order Tubulidentata Infraclass Metatheria [= Marsupialia] Order Dasyuromorphia Order Didelphimorphia Order Diprotodontia Order Microbiotheria Order Notoryctemorphia Order Paucituberculata Order Peramelemorphia Infraclass Neognathae Superorder Galloanseri Order Anseriformes Order Galliformes Superorder Neoaves Order Accipitriformes Order Apodiformes Order Bucerotiformes Order Caprimulgiformes Order Cariamiformes Order Charadriiformes Order Ciconiiformes Order Coliiformes Order Columbiformes Order Coraciiformes Order Cuculiformes Order Eurypygiformes Order Falconiformes Order Gaviiformes Order Gruiformes Order Leptosomiformes Order Mesitornithiformes Order Musophagiformes Order Opisthocomiformes Order Otidiformes (Continued) 51 / 54 Phylum Echinodermata Subphylum Asterozoa Subclass Squamata Class Asteroidea Class Ophiuroidea Order Passeriformes Order Pelecaniformes Order Phaethontiformes Order Phoenicopteriformes Order Piciformes Order Podicipediformes Order Procellariiformes Order Psittaciformes Order Pteroclidiformes Order Sphenisciformes Order Strigiformes Order Suliformes Order Trogoniformes Infraclass Paleognathae Order Apterygiformes Order Casuariiformes Order Rheiformes Order Struthioniformes Order Tinamiformes Subclass Crocodylomorpha Order Crocodylia Subclass Rhynchocephalia Order Sphenodontida Order Anguimorpha Order Gekkota Order Inguania Order Lacertoidea Order Scincoidea Order Serpentes Subclass Testudinata Order Testudines Order Brisingida Order Forcipulatida Order Notomyotida Order Paxillosida Order Peripoda Order Spinulosida Order Valvatida Order Velatida Order Euryalida Order Ophiurida (Continued) 52 / 54 Subphylum Crinozoa Subphylum Echinozoa Class Crinoidea Class Echinoidea Subclass Cidaroidea Phylum Hemichordata Phylum Xenacoelomorpha Subphylum Acoelomorpha Class Holothuroidea Class Pterobranchia Order Comatulida Order Cyrtocrinida Order Hyocrinida Order Isocrinida Order Cidaroida Subclass Euechinoidea Infraclass N.N. Order Echinothurioida Infraclass Acroechinoidea Order Aspidodiadematoida Order Diadematoida Order Micropygoida Order Pedinoida Infraclass Carinacea Order Arbacioida Order Camarodonta Order Salenioida Order Stomopneustoida Infraclass Irregularia Order Cassiduloida Order Clypeasteroida Order Echinolampadoida Order Holasteroida Order Spatangoida Order N.N. (Thyone) Order Apodida Order Aspidochirotida Order Dendrochirotida Order Elasipodida Order Molpadida Class Enteropneusta (e.g., Harrimaniidae) Subclass Cephalodiscida (Cephalodiscus) Subclass Graptolithina Order Rhabdopleurida Class Acoela (e.g., Diopisthoporidae) Subphylum Xenoturbellida Class Nemertodermatida (e.g., Nemertodermatidae) Class N.N. (Xenoturbellidae) Supporting Information Reference 1. Ruggiero MA , Gordon DP , Orrell TM , Bailly N , Bourgoin T , Brusca RC , et al. ( 2015 ) A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms . PLoS ONE 10 ( 4 ) : e0119248 . doi: 10.1371/journal. pone. 0119248 PMID: 25923521


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Michael A. Ruggiero, Dennis P. Gordon, Thomas M. Orrell, Nicolas Bailly, Thierry Bourgoin, Richard C. Brusca, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Michael D. Guiry, Paul M. Kirk. Correction: A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms, PLOS ONE, 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130114