PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,845)

Associations between increased intervention coverage for mothers and newborns and the number and quality of contacts between families and health workers: An analysis of cluster level repeat cross sectional survey data in Ethiopia

Background Survival of mothers and newborns depends on life-saving interventions reaching those in need. Recent evidence suggests that indicators of contact with health services are poor proxies for measures of coverage of life saving care and attention has shifted towards the quality of care provided during contacts. Methods and findings Regression analysis using data from...

A comprehensive assessment of patient reported symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well being in patients initiating direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: Results from a large US multi-center observational study

Background Symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well-being of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiating direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in real-world clinical settings are not known. We characterized these patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among HCV-infected patients and explored associations with sociodemographic, liver disease, and...

Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment

Mass production of plastics started nearly 70 years ago and the production rate is expected to double over the next two decades. While serving many applications because of their durability, stability and low cost, plastics have deleterious effects on the environment. Plastic is known to release a variety of chemicals during degradation, which has a negative impact on biota. Here...

How accurate are runners’ prospective predictions of their race times?

Metacognition is a domain which has illuminated our understanding of the regulation of cognition, but has yet to be applied in detail to more physical activities. We used half marathon finish time predictions from 7211 runners to investigate the factors that influence running performance metacognitive accuracy. In particular, we were concerned with the effects of experience...

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in physic nut

Auxin response factors (ARF) are important transcription factors which mediate the transcription of auxin responsive genes by binding directly to auxin response elements (AuxREs) found in the promoter regions of these genes. To date, no information has been available about the genome-wide organization of the ARF transcription factor family in physic nut. In this study, 17 ARF...

Galectin-3 level predicts response to ablation and outcomes in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and systolic heart failure

Introduction Mechanisms of maintenance of both atrial fibrillation and structural left ventricular disease are known to include fibrosis. Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, is elevated both in patients with heart failure and persistent atrial fibrillation. We sought to find whether galectin-3 has a prognostic value in patients with heart failure and a reduced left ventricular...

Targeting the Mincle and TLR3 receptor using the dual agonist cationic adjuvant formulation 9 (CAF09) induces humoral and polyfunctional memory T cell responses in calves

There is a need for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines to protect against chronic bacterial pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a number of species. One of the main challenges for vaccine development is the lack of safe adjuvants that induce protective immune responses. Cationic Adjuvant Formulation 01...

Long-term moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and risk of coronary heart disease

Background Harmful effects of long-term exposure to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and blood pressure on coronary heart disease (CHD) have not been rigorously examined. We estimated the risk of CHD under long-term exposure to moderately elevated LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure compared with the risk under shorter exposures to higher levels of the...

Comparison of the sympathetic stimulatory abilities of B-type procyanidins based on induction of uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and increased plasma catecholamine (CA) in mice

Objectives We previously found that elevated energy expenditure following a single oral dose of flavan 3-ols (FL), a mixture of catechins and B type procyanidins, is caused by sympathetic nerve activation. In the present study, we compared the activity of the FL components (-)-epicatechin (EC; monomer), procyanidin B2 (B2; dimer), procyanidin C1 (C1; trimer), cinnamtannin A2 (A2...

Development and characterization of penta-flowering and triple-flowering genotypes in garden pea (Pisum sativum L. var. hortense)

This study reports the development of a garden pea genotype ‘VRPM–901–5’ producing five flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes, by using single plant selection approach from a cross ‘VL-8 × PC-531’. In addition, five other stable genetic stocks, namely VRPM-501, VRPM–502, VRPM–503, VRPM–901–3 and VRPSeL–1 producing three flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes...

Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) sentinel surveillance in the country of Georgia, 2015-2017

Background Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) causes substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The country of Georgia conducts sentinel surveillance to monitor SARI activity and changes in its infectious etiology. This study characterizes the epidemiology of SARI in Georgia over the 2015/16 and 2016/17 influenza seasons, compares clinical presentations by etiology...

Health services costs for cancer care in Australia: Estimates from the 45 and Up Study

Background Cancer care represents a substantial and rapidly rising healthcare cost in Australia. Our aim was to provide accurate population-based estimates of the health services cost of cancer care using large-scale linked patient-level data. Methods We analysed data for incident cancers diagnosed 2006–2010 and followed to 2014 among 266,793 eligible participants in the 45 and...

Characterization of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma using microRNA profiling and targeted gene sequencing

Background Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors that may transform into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the molecular drivers of this transformation remain ill-defined. This study evaluates the molecular changes in HCA and HCC and in comparison to their adjacent non-neoplastic liver. Methods 11 patients with HCA and 10 patients with HCC without underlying...