PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 189,670)

Acute glomerulonephritis with large confluent IgA-dominant deposits associated with liver cirrhosis

Background Small glomerular IgA deposits have been reported in patients with liver cirrhosis, mainly as an incidental finding in autopsy studies. We recently encountered nine cirrhotic patients who presented with acute proliferative glomerulonephritis with unusually large, exuberant glomerular immune complex deposits, in the absence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or ...

Forest management strategy affects saproxylic beetle assemblages: A comparison of even and uneven-aged silviculture using direct and indirect sampling

Management of forest for wood production has altered ecosystem structures and processes and led to habitat loss and species extinctions, worldwide. Deadwood is a key resource supporting forest biodiversity, and commonly declines following forest management. However, different forest management methods affect dead wood differently. For example, uneven-aged silviculture maintains an ...

The development of the own-race advantage in school-age children: A morphing face paradigm

Previous studies examining the other-race effect in school-age children mostly focused on recognition memory performance. Here we investigated perceptual discriminability for Asian-like versus Caucasian-like morph faces in school-age Taiwanese children and adults. One-hundred-and-two 5- to 12-year-old children and twenty-three adults performed a sequential same/different face ...

Predicting essential proteins by integrating orthology, gene expressions, and PPI networks

Identifying essential proteins is very important for understanding the minimal requirements of cellular life and finding human disease genes as well as potential drug targets. Experimental methods for identifying essential proteins are often costly, time-consuming, and laborious. Many computational methods for such task have been proposed based on the topological properties of ...

Severe abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Onset is associated with deterioration of liver cirrhosis

Background In patients with liver cirrhosis, cardiac dysfunction is frequent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis seems to be linked to autonomic dysfunction. This study investigates the role of autonomic dysfunction assessed by Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT) analyses in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods and patients Inclusion ...

High-resolution temporal and regional mapping of MAPT expression and splicing in human brain development

The microtubule associated protein tau plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies suggest that tau also plays a role in disorders of neuronal connectivity, including epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder. Animal studies have shown that the MAPT gene, which codes for the tau protein, undergoes complex pre-mRNA alternative splicing to ...

Morphological and molecular analyses of Anodontinae species (Bivalvia, Unionidae) of Lake Baikal and Transbaikalia

The diversity and taxonomy of anodontine species in Lake Baikal and Transbaikalia region has been contentious since it is based on a typological species concept, the so called “Comparatory Method”. Using this method, six Comparatory anodontine species have been described for the study area as belonging to the genus Colletopterum. This genus was separated from Anodonta based on ...

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and mental health status: A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study

There is a suspected but unproven association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mental health. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and subjective stress, depressive disorders, health-related quality of life (QoL) and suicide. We selected 124,205 adults from the Korean Community Health ...

Can a single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation targeted to the motor cortex interrupt pain processing?

The modulatory role of the primary motor cortex (M1), reflected by an inhibitory effect of M1-stimulation on clinical pain, motivated us to deepen our understanding of M1’s role in pain modulation. We used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-induced virtual lesion (VL) to interrupt with M1 activity during noxious heat pain. We hypothesized that TMS-VL will effect experimental ...

Embodied pain in fibromyalgia: Disturbed somatorepresentations and increased plasticity of the body schema

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a highly prevalent, chronic musculoskeletal condition characterized by widespread pain and evoked pain at tender points. This study evaluated various aspects of body awareness in a sample of 14 women with FMS and 13 healthy controls, such as plasticity of the body schema, body esteem, and interoceptive awareness. To this end, the Rubber Hand Illusion ...

A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of individualized occupational therapy for patients with schizophrenia in Japan

The individualized occupational therapy (IOT) program is a psychosocial program that we developed to facilitate proactive participation in treatment and improve cognitive functioning and other outcomes for inpatients with acute schizophrenia. The program consists of motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, individualized visits, handicraft activities, individualized ...

Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison

Background Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle ...

Assessing the validity of a data driven segmentation approach: A 4 year longitudinal study of healthcare utilization and mortality

Background Segmentation of heterogeneous patient populations into parsimonious and relatively homogenous groups with similar healthcare needs can facilitate healthcare resource planning and development of effective integrated healthcare interventions for each segment. We aimed to apply a data-driven, healthcare utilization-based clustering analysis to segment a regional health ...

The effects of a dopamine agonist (apomorphine) on experimental and spontaneous pain in patients with chronic radicular pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

Background Although evidence suggests that dopaminergic systems are involved in pain processing, the effects of dopaminergic interventions on pain remains questionable. This randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was aimed at exploring the effect of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain evoked by cold stimulation and on spontaneous pain in ...

Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide signaling in bystander cells

It is now well accepted that radiation induced bystander effects can occur in cells exposed to media from irradiated cells. The aim of this study was to follow the bystander cells in real time following addition of media from irradiated cells and to determine the effect of inhibiting these signals. A human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT cells, was irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) ...

Factors associated with death and loss to follow-up in children on antiretroviral care in Mingalardon Specialist Hospital, Myanmar, 2006–2016

Background Myanmar National AIDS programme’s priority is to improve the survival of all people living with HIV by providing anti-retroviral therapy (ART) care. More than 7200 children (aged <15 years) have been enrolled into ART care from 2005 to 2016. A previous study showed that ~11% children on ART care had either died or were lost to follow-up by 60 months. Factors associated ...

Impacts of human recreation on carnivores in protected areas

Mammalian carnivores can be particularly sensitive to human disturbance, even within protected areas (PAs). Our objective was to understand how human disturbance affects carnivore communities in southern Arizona, USA by studying habitat occupancy based on data collected using non-invasive methods in three PAs with different levels of human disturbance. Carnivore occupancy varied ...

Accuracy of rapid diagnosis of Talaromyces marneffei: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background To examine the accuracy of Rapid Diagnosis of Talaromyces marneffei (RDTM) in order to improve diagnosis and treatment for clinical measures and reduce the mortality due to associated infections. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we screened PubMed, Ovid (Cochrane library) and Web of Science, Chinese database CNKI and Wanfang for articles published ...

From SNPs to pathways: Biological interpretation of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) genome wide association study (GWAS) results

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a common method for discovery of gene-disease relationships, in particular for complex diseases like Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The experience with GWAS analysis has revealed that the genetic risk for complex diseases involves cumulative, small effects of many genes and only some genes with a moderate effect. In order to ...

A high content, high throughput cellular thermal stability assay for measuring drug-target engagement in living cells

Determining and understanding drug target engagement is critical for drug discovery. This can be challenging within living cells as selective readouts are often unavailable. Here we describe a novel method for measuring target engagement in living cells based on the principle of altered protein thermal stabilization / destabilization in response to ligand binding. This assay ...

Doxorubicin chemotherapy affects the intracellular and interstitial free amino acid pools in skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle (SM) health and integrity is dependent on the dynamic balance between protein synthesis and degradation, and central to this process is the availability of amino acids (AA) in the amino pool. While Doxorubicin (DOX) remains one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies, little is known of the effect of ...

HIV prevalence by ethnic group covaries with prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 and high-risk sex in Uganda: An ecological study

Background HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic ...

SUR1-TRPM4 channel activation and phasic secretion of MMP-9 induced by tPA in brain endothelial cells

Background Hemorrhagic transformation is a major complication of ischemic stroke, is linked to matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and is exacerbated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is characterized by SUR1-TRPM4 (sulfonylurea receptor 1—transient receptor potential melastatin 4) channel upregulation in microvascular endothelium. In humans and ...

Assessment of veins in T2*-weighted MR angiography predicts infarct growth in hyperacute ischemic stroke

Background and purpose T2*-weighted magnetic resonance angiography (SWAN) detects hemodynamic insufficiency as hypointense areas in medullary or cortical veins. We therefore investigated whether SWAN can help predict ischemic penumbra-like lesions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Materials and methods Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) records—including SWAN, ...

Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between ...