PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,500)

The matricellular protein CCN5 inhibits fibrotic deformation of retinal pigment epithelium

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in maintaining retinal function, and its defect is thought to be critically implicated in various ocular disorders. This study demonstrated that the matricellular protein CCN5 was down-regulated in ARPE-19 cells treated with the pro-fibrotic agent transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. A recombinant adenovirus expressing CCN5...

Dosimetric evaluation of the compass program for patient dose analysis in IMRT delivery quality assurance

A practical method was designed to verify the accuracy of dose distributions calculated using Compass, which can reconstruct the dose distribution inside a patient’s body during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Twelve virtual IMRT treatment plans were developed using an ArcCHECK diode detector array, and then the recalculated and reconstructed doses in Compass were...

A multicriteria adaptive opportunistic treecast routing protocol for multimedia dissemination in vehicle-to-vehicle telescreen

This paper presents vehicle-to-vehicle telescreen (VVT) and a multicast scheme to disseminate digital signage multimedia services to vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Multimedia dissemination in VANETs is challenging because of the high packet losses (PLs), delays and longer disconnection times, which degrade the network quality of service (QoS) and user quality of experience...

Corrected QT interval on the electrocardiogram after liver transplantation: Surrogate marker of poor clinical outcomes?

Background Prolongation of corrected QT interval (QTc) on the electrocardiogram is associated with cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. Changes in the QTc (corrected QT) interval before and after liver transplantation (LT) for the treatment of liver cirrhosis (LC) and its association with clinical outcomes have not been fully evaluated. Methods From January 2011 to May 2016...

Temporal patterns of anthrax outbreaks among livestock in Lesotho, 2005-2016

Background Although anthrax is endemic in Lesotho, limited information is available on the patterns of the disease among livestock animals. This study investigated temporal patterns of anthrax outbreaks and cases among livestock animals in Lesotho. Methods Secondary data of anthrax outbreaks reported to the Department of Livestock Services between January 2005 and December 2016...

Cross-sectional estimates revealed high HIV incidence in Botswana rural communities in the era of successful ART scale-up in 2013-2015

Background Botswana is close to reaching the UNAIDS “90-90-90” HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment (ART), and viral suppression goals. We sought to determine HIV incidence in this setting with both high HIV prevalence and high ART coverage. Methods We used a cross-sectional approach to assessing HIV incidence. A random, population-based sample of adults age 16–64 years was...

Accuracy and reliability of a low-cost, handheld 3D imaging system for child anthropometry

The usefulness of anthropometry to define childhood malnutrition is undermined by poor measurement quality, which led to calls for new measurement approaches. We evaluated the ability of a 3D imaging system to correctly measure child stature (length or height), head circumference and arm circumference. In 2016–7 we recruited and measured children at 20 facilities in and around...

Theoretical and experimental study of dual-fiber laser ablation for prostate cancer

Single-fiber laser treatment of the prostate has been widely accepted in the clinic due to its minimal invasiveness and high controllability. However, for large tumors, multiple insertions of the laser probe would be needed to achieve full coverage of the tumor, increasing the complexity of the treatment and occasionally resulting in the incomplete killing of tumor cells due to a...

Testing the efforts model of simultaneous interpreting: An ERP study

We utilized the event-related potential (ERP) technique to study neural activity associated with different levels of working memory (WM) load during simultaneous interpretation (SI) of continuous prose. The amplitude of N1 and P1 components elicited by task-irrelevant tone probes was significantly modulated as a function of WM load but not the direction of interpretation...

Determination of adjusted reference intervals of urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress in healthy adults using GAMLSS models

In this study we aimed at identifying main demographic, laboratory and environmental factors influencing the level of urinary biomarkers (DNA-derived 8-oxodG and lipid membrane-derived 8-isoprostane), and deriving their adjusted 95% reference intervals (RI) in a sample of healthy people from the general population. Data from 281 healthy subjects from the Gene Environment...

Effects of physical exercise training on nocturnal symptoms in asthma: Systematic review

Introduction Nocturnal worsening of asthma symptoms is a common feature of asthma. Physical exercise training improves general asthma control; however, there is no evidence showing the effects of physical exercise on nocturnal asthma symptoms. Indeed, asthma patients with daytime and nighttime symptoms are physiologically different, and thus the effects of physical exercise on...

Evaluation of tooth brushing behavior change by social marketing approach among primary students in Qom, Iran: A quasi-experimental controlled study

Objectives Nowadays traditional training methods for promotion of oral health behaviors cannot meet the demand of the society and there is a need for effective new methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of social marketing approach versus the traditional method on promotion of tooth brushing habits in primary school students of Kahak and Jafariyeh, Qom, Iran...

Awareness, knowledge, use, willingness to use and need of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) during World Gay Pride 2017

Objective To assess the awareness, knowledge, use, and willingness to use and need of PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) who attended World Gay Pride (WGP) 2017 in Madrid. Design and methods Online survey. Participants were recruited through gay-oriented dating apps and HIV Non-Governmental Organizations´ social media. Inclusion criteria...

Exploring emotional expression recognition in aging adults using the Moving Window Technique

Adult aging is associated with difficulties in recognizing negative facial expressions such as fear and anger. However, happiness and disgust recognition is generally found to be less affected. Eye-tracking studies indicate that the diagnostic features of fearful and angry faces are situated in the upper regions of the face (the eyes), and for happy and disgusted faces in the...

Machine learning to support social media empowered patients in cancer care and cancer treatment decisions

Background A primary variant of social media, online support groups (OSG) extend beyond the standard definition to incorporate a dimension of advice, support and guidance for patients. OSG are complementary, yet significant adjunct to patient journeys. Machine learning and natural language processing techniques can be applied to these large volumes of unstructured text...

Impact of near work on perceived stress according to working hours: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013–2015)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among working hours, near work time, and perceived stress. In total, data of 3,776 workers from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI were examined. The workers’ working hours per week, daily near work time, and complaints of perceived stress were analyzed in conjunction with other...

The provision of urban green space and its accessibility: Spatial data effects in Brussels

Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations in the distribution of UGS within cities. There is no consensus about how UGS, and their provision and access, must be defined from different land use data types. Here we...

Cross-platform mechanical characterization of lung tissue

Published data on the mechanical strength and elasticity of lung tissue is widely variable, primarily due to differences in how testing was conducted across individual studies. This makes it extremely difficult to find a benchmark modulus of lung tissue when designing synthetic extracellular matrices (ECMs). To address this issue, we tested tissues from various areas of the lung...

QFlow lite dataset: A machine-learning approach to the charge states in quantum dot experiments

Background Over the past decade, machine learning techniques have revolutionized how research and science are done, from designing new materials and predicting their properties to data mining and analysis to assisting drug discovery to advancing cybersecurity. Recently, we added to this list by showing how a machine learning algorithm (a so-called learner) combined with an...

Modeling and design of thin bending wooden bilayers

In recent architectural research, thin wooden bilayer laminates capable of self-actuation in response to humidity changes have been proposed as sustainable, programmed, and fully autonomous elements for facades or roofs for shading and climate regulation. Switches, humidistats, or motor elements represent further promising applications. Proper wood-adapted prediction models for...

Derivatives and inverse of cascaded linear+nonlinear neural models

In vision science, cascades of Linear+Nonlinear transforms are very successful in modeling a number of perceptual experiences. However, the conventional literature is usually too focused on only describing the forward input-output transform. Instead, in this work we present the mathematics of such cascades beyond the forward transform, namely the Jacobian matrices and the inverse...

Structure of natural variant transglutaminase 2 reveals molecular basis of gaining stability and higher activity

Multi-functional transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which possesses protein cross-linking and GTP hydrolysis activities, is involved in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, angiogenesis, wound healing, and neuronal regeneration, and is associated with many human diseases, including inflammatory disease, celiac disease, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, tissue fibrosis, and...

Calcium binding of the antifungal protein PAF: Structure, dynamics and function aspects by NMR and MD simulations

Calcium ions (Ca2+) play an important role in the toxicity of the cysteine-rich and cationic antifungal protein PAF from Penicillium chrysogenum: high extracellular Ca2+ levels reduce the toxicity of PAF in the sensitive model fungus Neurospora crassa in a concentration dependent way. However, little is known about the mechanistic details of the Ca2+ ion impact and the Ca2...

Discovery of novel multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) inhibitors as active agents reducing resistance to anticancer drug 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) by structure and ligand-based virtual screening

Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. It is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), which is becoming a growing challenge to the treatment of cancer and infections. In the context of several types of cancer in which MRP4 is overexpressed, MRP4 inhibition manifests striking effects against cancer progression and drug...