PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,663)

Pulmonary immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in exposed individuals

Background Blood based Interferon-(IFN)-γ release assays (IGRAs) have a poor predictive value for the development of tuberculosis. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between IGRAs and pulmonary immune responses in tuberculosis contacts in Germany. Methods IGRAs were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells and peripheral blood from close healthy contacts of ...

Epidemic spreading in multiplex networks influenced by opinion exchanges on vaccination

Through years, the use of vaccines has always been a controversial issue. People in a society may have different opinions about how beneficial the vaccines are and as a consequence some of those individuals decide to vaccinate or not themselves and their relatives. This attitude in face of vaccines has clear consequences in the spread of diseases and their transformation in ...

The effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and maternal outcome in the treatment of persistent postpartum hemorrhage: A nationwide retrospective cohort study

Background Recent results show a protective effect of tranexamic acid on death due to bleeding in patients with postpartum hemorrhage in low- and middle-resource countries. We quantify the association between early administration of tranexamic acid compared to late or no administration and severe acute maternal morbidity and blood loss among women suffering from persistent severe ...

Activation of plantar flexor muscles is constrained by multiple muscle synergies rather than joint torques

Behavioral evidence has suggested that a small number of muscle synergies may be responsible for activating a variety of muscles. Nevertheless, such dimensionality reduction may also be explained using the perspective of alternative hypotheses, such as predictions based on linear combinations of joint torques multiplied by corresponding coefficients. To compare the explanatory ...

Methods for invasive species control are transferable across invaded areas

Cane Toads (Rhinella marina) are invasive pests in many parts of the world, including the Japanese island of Ishigaki. Extensive research in Australia has identified promising new methods for control, but also has shown that toads exhibit geographic variation in many traits (suggesting that methods developed in one location may not work in another). Can the approaches developed in ...

Impact of lean mass and bone density on glomerular filtration rate estimation in people living with HIV/AIDS

Context Chronic kidney disease is a frequent complication in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Although previous studies have suggested that the CKD-EPI formula is appropriate to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in HIV-positive adults with normal kidney function, the optimal way to estimate GFR in those with Stage 3 chronic kidney disease is not known. Moreover, the impact of ...

Ensemble-based modeling and rigidity decomposition of allosteric interaction networks and communication pathways in cyclin-dependent kinases: Differentiating kinase clients of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone

The overarching goal of delineating molecular principles underlying differentiation of protein kinase clients and chaperone-based modulation of kinase activity is fundamental to understanding activity of many oncogenic kinases that require chaperoning of Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems to attain a functionally competent active form. Despite structural similarities and common activation ...

Clinical relevance of kallikrein-related peptidase 9, 10, 11, and 15 mRNA expression in advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer

KLK9, 10, 11, and 15 may represent potential cancer biomarkers for evaluating ovarian cancer prognosis. In the present study, we selected a homogeneous cohort including 139 patients of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (FIGO stage III/IV) and assessed the mRNA levels of KLK9, 10, 11, and 15 in tumor tissue by quantitative PCR. No significant associations of KLK9, 10, 11, ...

Raw pet food as a risk factor for shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in household cats

Background Close contact between pets and owners provides the opportunity for transmission of antimicrobial resistant organisms like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC beta-lactamase (AmpC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, posing a risk to public health. Objectives To investigate whether raw feed is a risk factor for household cats to shed ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, ...

Efficiency of two larval diets for mass-rearing of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti is a major vector of arboviruses that may be controlled on an area-wide basis using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Larval diet is a major factor in mass-rearing for SIT programs. We compared dietary effects on immature development and adult fitness-related characteristics for an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) diet, developed for rearing Ae. albopictus, ...

Younger age at diagnosis predisposes to mucosal recovery in celiac disease on a gluten-free diet: A meta-analysis

Background and aims Persistent intestinal damage is associated with higher complication rates in celiac disease. We aimed to assess the potential modifiers of mucosal recovery. Materials and methods We screened databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Trials, and Web of Science) for papers on celiac disease. Papers discussing (1) celiac patients (2) follow-up biopsy and (3) mucosal ...

Pyrazinamide clearance is impaired among HIV/tuberculosis patients with high levels of systemic immune activation

Pyrazinamide is the main driver of sterilizing effect in the standard regimen in adults and older children, and this effect is concentration-dependent. Tuberculosis patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk for poor tuberculosis treatment outcomes and adverse drug events. We sought to determine whether measures of systemic immune activation ...

Phenome-wide association study using research participants’ self-reported data provides insight into the Th17 and IL-17 pathway

A phenome-wide association study of variants in genes in the Th17 and IL-17 pathway was performed using self-reported phenotypes and genetic data from 521,000 research participants of 23andMe. Results replicated known associations with similar effect sizes for autoimmune traits illustrating self-reported traits can be a surrogate for clinically assessed conditions. Novel ...

Involvement of the enteroendocrine system in intestinal obstruction

Introduction Intestinal atresia, a rare congenital condition, is often associated with intestinal motility disorders despite adequate neonatal surgery. Previous studies have focused on changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS). We hypothesized that other components of the digestive tract could be involved in this condition. Material and methods In a rat model of ...

Lactobacillus reuteri suppresses E. coli O157:H7 in bovine ruminal fluid: Toward a pre-slaughter strategy to improve food safety?

The bovine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the main reservoir for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) responsible for food-borne infections. Therefore, it is crucial to develop strategies, such as EHEC suppression by antagonistic microorganisms, to reduce EHEC survival in the GIT of cattle and to limit shedding and food contamination. Most human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri ...

Computational and biological evidences on the serotonergic involvement of SeTACN antidepressant-like effect in mice

A series of phenylselanyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonitriles with different substituents were screened for their binding affinity with serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) by docking molecular. 5-(4methoxyphenyl)-1-(2-(phenylselanyl)phenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonitrile (SeTACN) exhibited the best conformation with SERT even higher than fluoxetine and ...

Pathology of wild-type and toxin-independent Bacillus anthracis meningitis in rabbits

Hemorrhagic meningitis is considered a complication of anthrax and was reported in about 50% of deadly cases in humans and non-human primates (NHP). Recently we demonstrated in Guinea pigs and rabbits that 100% of the B. anthracis-infected animals presented histopathology of meningitis at the time of death, some without any sign of hemorrhage. A similar pathology was observed in ...

Health assessment of future PM2.5 exposures from indoor, outdoor, and secondhand tobacco smoke concentrations under alternative policy pathways in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Introduction Winter air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is among the worst in the world. The health impacts of policy decisions affecting air pollution exposures in Ulaanbaatar were modeled and evaluated under business as usual and two more-strict alternative emissions pathways through 2024. Previous studies have relied on either outdoor or indoor concentrations to assesses the ...

PTGDR gene expression and response to dexamethasone treatment in an in vitro model

Asthma is a multifactorial pathology influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Glucocorticoid treatment decreases symptoms by regulating genes involved in the inflammatory process through binding to specific DNA sequences. Polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the Prostaglandin D Receptor (PTGDR) gene have been related to asthma. We aimed to analyze the effect of ...

Development of a multiplex serological assay reveals a worldwide distribution of murine astrovirus infections in laboratory mice

Laboratory mice play a tremendous role in biomedical research in studies on immunology, infection, cancer and therapy. In the course of standardization of mice used in animal experiments, health monitoring constitutes an important instrument towards microbiological standardization. Infections with murine astroviruses (MuAstV) were only recently discovered and are, therefore, still ...

Retest reliability of individual alpha ERD topography assessed by human electroencephalography

Background Despite the immense literature related to diverse human electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters, very few studies have focused on the reliability of these measures. Some of the most studied components (i.e., P3 or MMN) have received more attention regarding the stability of their main parameters, such as latency, amplitude or topography. However, spectral modulations ...

Out-of-pocket payment for surgery in Uganda: The rate of impoverishing and catastrophic expenditure at a government hospital

Background and objectives It is Ugandan governmental policy that all surgical care delivered at government hospitals in Uganda is to be provided to patients free of charge. In practice, however, frequent stock-outs and broken equipment require patients to pay for large portions of their care out of their own pocket. The purpose of this study was to determine the financial impact on ...

A novel multicolor flow-cytometry application for quantitative detection of receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells

There is a need to develop new techniques for quantitative measurement of receptors expression on particular vasculature cells types. Here, we describe and demonstrate a novel method to measure quantitatively and simultaneously the expression of endothelin B receptor (ETB) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We isolated cells from male rat tissues such as: brain pial, brain ...

Cost-effectiveness of post-landing latent tuberculosis infection control strategies in new migrants to Canada

Background The majority of tuberculosis in migrants to Canada occurs due to reactivation of latent TB infection. Risk of tuberculosis in those with latent tuberculosis infection can be significantly reduced with treatment. Presently, only 2.4% of new migrants are flagged for post-landing surveillance, which may include latent tuberculosis infection screening; no other migrants ...