PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,742)

Direct, indirect and total effectiveness of bivalent HPV vaccine in women in Galicia, Spain

Bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was incorporated into the childhood vaccination calendar in Galicia, Spain in 2008. The objectives of this study were to estimate direct, indirect and total effectiveness of HPV vaccine and to identify sexual habits changes in the post-vaccination period in Galicia, Spain.Endocervical scrapings of 745 women attending 7 Health Areas of...

Effect of inhibition of CBP-coactivated β-catenin-mediated Wnt signalling in uremic rats with vascular calcifications

Uremic vascular calcification is a regulated cell-mediated process wherein cells in the arterial wall transdifferentiate to actively calcifying cells resulting in a process resembling bone formation. Wnt signalling is established as a major driver for vessel formation and maturation and for embryonic bone formation, and disturbed Wnt signalling might play a role in vascular...

Factors associated with first- versus second-generation long-acting antipsychotics prescribed under ordinary clinical practice in Italy

Background For many years, long-acting intramuscular (LAI) antipsychotics have been prescribed predominantly to chronic and severe patients, as a last resort when other treatments failed. Recently, a broader and earlier use of LAIs, particularly second-generation LAIs, has been emphasized. To date, few studies attempted to frame how this change in prescribing took place in real...

Evaluating lifetime nitrogen use efficiency of dairy cattle: A modelling approach

The increased nitrogen (N) use efficiency in cattle farming is proposed as a key action to improve N management and reduce the environmental impact of cattle farming systems. Most attention has been given to lactating cow nutrition, excluding the elements of fertility, disease, and the non-lactating animals within the herd. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a...

Transforming growth factor-β1 gene promoter -509C/T polymorphism in association with expression affects colorectal cancer development and depends on gender

It is widely known that sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is age-related diseases with higher incidence rate among men. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a major immune regulatory cytokine with a great impact and dual role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. In this context, the aim of the study was to explore the role of circulating TGF-β1 and the -509C/T functional...

A comprehensive assessment of patient reported symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well being in patients initiating direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: Results from a large US multi-center observational study

Background Symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well-being of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiating direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in real-world clinical settings are not known. We characterized these patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among HCV-infected patients and explored associations with sociodemographic, liver disease, and...

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in physic nut

Auxin response factors (ARF) are important transcription factors which mediate the transcription of auxin responsive genes by binding directly to auxin response elements (AuxREs) found in the promoter regions of these genes. To date, no information has been available about the genome-wide organization of the ARF transcription factor family in physic nut. In this study, 17 ARF...

Development and characterization of penta-flowering and triple-flowering genotypes in garden pea (Pisum sativum L. var. hortense)

This study reports the development of a garden pea genotype ‘VRPM–901–5’ producing five flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes, by using single plant selection approach from a cross ‘VL-8 × PC-531’. In addition, five other stable genetic stocks, namely VRPM-501, VRPM–502, VRPM–503, VRPM–901–3 and VRPSeL–1 producing three flowers per peduncle at multiple flowering nodes...

Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) sentinel surveillance in the country of Georgia, 2015-2017

Background Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) causes substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The country of Georgia conducts sentinel surveillance to monitor SARI activity and changes in its infectious etiology. This study characterizes the epidemiology of SARI in Georgia over the 2015/16 and 2016/17 influenza seasons, compares clinical presentations by etiology...

Characterization of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma using microRNA profiling and targeted gene sequencing

Background Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors that may transform into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the molecular drivers of this transformation remain ill-defined. This study evaluates the molecular changes in HCA and HCC and in comparison to their adjacent non-neoplastic liver. Methods 11 patients with HCA and 10 patients with HCC without underlying...

A multi-level test of the seed number/size trade-off in two Scandinavian communities

Seed size is a fundamental life-history trait for plants. A seed number/size trade-off is assumed because the resources invested in reproduction are limited; however, such a trade-off is not always observed. This could be a consequence of the method used for testing it, where the null hypothesis is dictated by common statistical practice, rather than being based on any underlying...

Overview of three influenza seasons in Georgia, 2014–2017

Background Influenza epidemiological and virologic data from Georgia are limited. We aimed to present Influenza Like Illness (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance data and characterize influenza viruses circulating in the country over three influenza seasons. Methods We analyzed sentinel site ILI and SARI data for the 2014–2017 seasons in Georgia...

Exposure to domestic violence influences pregnant women’s preparedness for childbirth in Nepal: A cross-sectional study

Objective This study aimed to evaluate if domestic violence affected women’s ability to prepare for childbirth. Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) includes saving money, arranging transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant, a health facility, and a blood donor before childbirth. During data collection, Nepal experienced two earthquakes and therefore...

Restricting the nonlinearity parameter in soil greenhouse gas flux calculation for more reliable flux estimates

The static chamber approach is often used for greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurements, whereby the flux is deduced from the increase of species concentration after closing the chamber. Since this increase changes diffusion gradients between chamber air and soil air, a nonlinear increase is expected. Lateral gas flow and leakages also contribute to non linearity. Several models...

Concrete surface crack detection with the improved pre-extraction and the second percolation processing methods

Monitoring the instantaneous and changing concrete surface condition is paramount to cost-effectively managing tunnel assets. In practice, detecting cracks efficiently and accurately is a very challenging task due to concrete blebs, stains, and illumination over the concrete surface. Unclear and tiny cracks cannot be detected effectively. In this paper, we proposed an ultra...

Automated size selection for short cell-free DNA fragments enriches for circulating tumor DNA and improves error correction during next generation sequencing

Circulating tumor-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) enables non-invasive diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment susceptibility testing in human cancers. However, accurate detection of variant alleles, particularly during untargeted searches, remains a principal obstacle to widespread application of cell-free DNA in clinical oncology. In this study, isolation of short cell-free DNA...

The role of older women in contesting norms associated with female genital mutilation/cutting in Senegambia: A factorial focus group analysis

Social norms theory has become prominent framework for understanding the perpetuation of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and has influenced the design of interventions aimed at stopping the practice. Theoretical advances draw attention to the fact that FGM/C is often upheld by multiple interconnected norms that may vary and shift over time, offering a potential...

Choosing between nurse-led and medical doctor-led from private for-profit versus non-for-profit health facilities: A household survey in urban Burkina Faso

Background Providers’ qualification (Medical doctor [MD] or nurse); type of care facility ownership (for-profit [FP] or not-for-profit [NFP]) may all influence individuals’ healthcare-seeking behavior and therefore merits empirical assessment to provide valuable evidence-informed policy orientation in the present context of private health system development. Previous studies have...

Performance comparison of the cobas Liat and Cepheid GeneXpert systems for Clostridium difficile detection

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a high burden and significant cause of healthcare-acquired infectious diarrhea in the United States (US). Timely and accurate diagnosis of CDI enables the rapid initiation of antibiotic therapy and infection control policies to minimize disease transmission. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have become a preferred modality for...

Distribution of vesicle pools in cerebellar parallel fibre terminals after depression of ectopic transmission

At parallel fibre terminals in the cerebellar cortex, glutamate released outside of the active zone can activate AMPA receptors on juxtaposed Bergmann glial cell processes. This process is termed “ectopic” release, and allows for directed transmission to astroglial cells that is functionally independent of synaptic transmission to postsynaptic Purkinje neurons. The location of...

Germination ecology of turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.) in the northern regions of Australia

In Australia, turnip weed has been rapidly emerging as one of the major weeds in conservation agricultural systems. Germination and emergence of turnip weed were examined for two populations collected from Gatton and St George regions of Australia; two locations with high and low rainfall, respectively. The seeds of turnip weed germinated at all the tested temperatures, but...

Mosquito control practices and perceptions: An analysis of economic stakeholders during the Zika epidemic in Belize, Central America

The tourist-based economy of Belize, a tropical hub for eco-tourism, is at high risk to be disproportionately impacted by established and emerging mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika. An online survey was used to probe economic stakeholders working in the Belize tourism industry about their mosquito control practices and perceptions. Responses demonstrated that the respondents...

If it doesn’t help, it doesn’t hurt? Information elaboration harms the performance of gender-diverse teams when attributions of competence are inaccurate

Information elaboration—the act of exchanging, discussing, and integrating information and perspectives through verbal communication—tends to be considered as the silver bullet that drives the performance of diverse teams. We challenge this notion by proposing that the effect of information elaboration on team performance depends on the accuracy of within-group competence...

Skin mucosome activity as an indicator of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans susceptibility in salamanders

Recently emerged fungal diseases, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) are an increasing threat to amphibians worldwide. In Europe, the threat of Bsal to salamander populations is demonstrated by the rapid decline of fire salamander populations in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. Although most European urodelans are susceptible to...

No evidence that facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is associated with women's sexual desire

Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been linked to many different behavioral tendencies. However, not all of these correlations have replicated well across samples. Arnocky et al. (in press, Archives of Sexual Behavior) recently reported that sexual desire was correlated with fWHR. The current study aimed to test this relationship in a large sample of women. fWHR was measured...