PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 192,587)

A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade

Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied...

Perceptions of community safety and social activity participation among youth in South Africa

Background Crime and violence causes massive disruptions to the health, survival and development of populations. In South Africa, incredibly high rates of crime and violence are noted. The country also has a very large youth population whose health, survival and development are key to economic growth. Among other efforts to encourage healthy youth development and the promotion of...

The ecology of the Drosophila-yeast mutualism in wineries

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most...

Survival in patients on hemodialysis: Effect of gender according to body mass index and creatinine

Background The association of a higher body mass index (BMI) with better survival is a well-known “obesity paradox” in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, men and women have different body compositions, which could impact the effect of BMI on mortality. We investigated the effect of gender on the obesity-mortality relationship in Korean patients on HD. Methods This study...

Ready for change: Oscillatory mechanisms of proactive motor control

Proactive motor control is a preparatory mechanism facilitating upcoming action inhibition or adaptation. Previous studies investigating proactive motor control mostly focused on response inhibition, as in the classical go-nogo or stop-signal tasks. However, everyday life rarely calls for the complete suppression of actions without subsequent behavioral adjustment. Therefore, we...

Photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces with copper doped Ti02 nanotube coatings illuminated by ceiling mounted fluorescent light

High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use have some shortcomings. In this work we show that copper doped TiO2 nanotubes deposited on...

Quantitative evaluation of variation in defoliation traits among sugarcane genotypes

Development of easily defoliating sugarcane varieties is urgently needed to facilitate efficient mechanical harvesting, reduce production costs, and increase sugar yield in China. In order to quantify the defoliation characteristics of sugarcane, we investigated eight traits in two field experiments with a range of sugarcane varieties at maturity. The length (LSR) and angle (ASR...

An overview of technical considerations when using quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression in human exercise research

Gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in skeletal muscle is routine in exercise studies. The reproducibility and reliability of the data fundamentally depend on how the experiments are performed and interpreted. Despite the popularity of the assay, there is a considerable variation in experimental protocols and data analyses from different laboratories, and there is a lack...

Identification of candidate genes for gelatinization temperature, gel consistency and pericarp color by GWAS in rice based on SLAF-sequencing

Rice is an important cereal in the world. The study of the genetic basis of important agronomic traits in rice landraces and identification of genes will facilitate the breed improvement. Gelatinization temperature (GT), gel consistency (GC) and pericarp color (PC) are important indices of rice cooking and eating quality evaluation and potential nutritional importance, which...

Evaluating verbal learning and memory in patients with an at-risk mental state or first episode psychosis using structural equation modelling

Background Verbal learning and memory are impaired not only in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) but also–to a lower extent–in those with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS). However, little is known about the specific nature of these impairments. Hence, we aimed to study learning and memory processes in ARMS and FEP patients by making use of structural...

Shilling attack detection for recommender systems based on credibility of group users and rating time series

Recommender systems are vulnerable to shilling attacks. Forged user-generated content data, such as user ratings and reviews, are used by attackers to manipulate recommendation rankings. Shilling attack detection in recommender systems is of great significance to maintain the fairness and sustainability of recommender systems. The current studies have problems in terms of the...

Diffusion tensor MRI of the healthy brachial plexus

Introduction Diffusion Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) is a promising tool for the evaluation of brachial plexus pathology. Therefore, we introduce and evaluate a fast DT-MRI protocol (8min33s scanning with 5–10 min postprocessing time) for the brachial plexus. Materials and methods Thirty healthy volunteers within three age-groups (18–35, 36–55, and > 56) received DT-MRI of the brachial...

Combining gray matter volume in the cuneus and the cuneus-prefrontal connectivity may predict early relapse in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients

Background Developing more effective strategies to prevent relapse remains one of the major challenges of treating substance dependence. Previous studies have identified brain abnormalities in abstinent alcoholics. However, whether these persistent brain deficits in abstinence could predict early relapse to alcohol use has not been well established. This study aimed to identify...

Proteomic analysis of watery saliva secreted by white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera

The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, is a phloem sap feeder that secretes watery and gelling saliva during feeding. In this study, we identified the major proteins in watery saliva of S. furcifera by shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis combined with transcriptomic analysis. A total of 161 proteins were identified, which were divided into 8 function categories, including...

Diversification and intensification of agricultural adaptation from global to local scales

Smallholder farming systems are vulnerable to a number of challenges, including continued population growth, urbanization, income disparities, land degradation, decreasing farm size and productivity, all of which are compounded by uncertainty of climatic patterns. Understanding determinants of smallholder farming practices is critical for designing and implementing successful...

A Chinese version of the Language Screening Test (CLAST) for early-stage stroke patients

There is a severe lack of aphasia screening tools for bedside use in Chinese. A number of aphasia assessment tools have recently been developed abroad, but some of these scales were not suitable for patients with acute stroke. The Language Screening Test (which includes two parallel versions [a/b]) in French has been proven to be an effective and time-saving aphasia screening...

Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study

Background Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6–59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional...

Association of maternal nutrition with transient neonatal hyperinsulinism

Objective The objective was to determine whether maternal nutritional factors are associated with transient neonatal hyperinsulinism (HI). Design and setting Case control study in 4 French tertiary Obstetrics and Neonatology Departments between 2008 and 2015. Methods Sixty-seven mothers of neonates diagnosed with transient hyperinsulinism and 113 mothers of controls were included...

Health management and pattern analysis of daily living activities of people with dementia using in-home sensors and machine learning techniques

The number of people diagnosed with dementia is expected to rise in the coming years. Given that there is currently no definite cure for dementia and the cost of care for this condition soars dramatically, slowing the decline and maintaining independent living are important goals for supporting people with dementia. This paper discusses a study that is called Technology...

An R package for simulating growth and organic wastage in aquaculture farms in response to environmental conditions and husbandry practices

A new R software package, RAC, is presented. RAC allows to simulate the rearing cycle of 4 species, finfish and shellfish, highly important in terms of production in the Mediterranean Sea. The package works both at the scale of the individual and of the farmed population. Mathematical models included in RAC were all validated in previous works, and account for growth and...

Potentially inappropriate prescribing in Ethiopian geriatric patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disorders using START/STOPP criteria

Background There was a paucity of data on the magnitude of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIPs) among Ethiopian elderly cardiovascular patients. Objective The aim of this study was to assess PIPs and associated factors in the elderly population with cardiovascular disorders using the START/STOPP screening criteria. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was...

Using an integral projection model to assess the effect of temperature on the growth of gilthead seabream Sparus aurata

Accurate information on the growth rates of fish is crucial for fisheries stock assessment and management. Empirical life history parameters (von Bertalanffy growth) are widely fitted to cross-sectional size-at-age data sampled from fish populations. This method often assumes that environmental factors affecting growth remain constant over time. The current study utilized...

Stopping at a red light: Recruitment of inhibitory control by environmental cues

Environmental cues can influence basic perceptual and attentional processes especially in an emotional context. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of a non-emotional common environmental cue―a traffic light—on a higher cognitive operation―inhibition. In two experiments, we administered a novel version of the stop-signal task, in which the go task was to...

c-Src kinase is involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activity of SLC11A1 in differentiating macrophages

Studies have demonstrated that the solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) is heavily glycosylated and phosphorylated in macrophages. However, the mechanisms of SLC11A1 phosphorylation, and the effects of phosphorylation on SLC11A1 activity remain largely unknown. Here, the tyrosine phosphorylation of SLC11A1 is observed in SLC11A1-expressing U937 cells when differentiated...

Longitudinal motor performance development in early adolescence and its relationship to adult success: An 8-year prospective study of highly talented soccer players

Several talent identification and development (TID) programs in soccer have implemented diagnostics to measure players’ motor performance. Yet, there is a lack of research investigating the relationship between motor development in adolescence and future, adult performance. This longitudinal study analyzed the three-year development of highly talented young soccer players’ speed...