PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 184,664)

Comparison of traffic-injury related hospitalisation between bicyclists and motorcyclists in Taiwan

Objectives Bicyclists and motorcyclists contribute substantially to the morbidity and mortality rates of road crash casualties. The objective of the study was to investigate the crash characteristics of bicyclist and motorcyclist casualties presented to hospitals in Taiwan resulting from crashes. Methods By using linked data from The National Traffic Crash Dataset and the National ...

Dynamical networks of influence in small group discussions

In many domains of life, business and management, numerous problems are addressed by small groups of individuals engaged in face-to-face discussions. While research in social psychology has a long history of studying the determinants of small group performances, the internal dynamics that govern a group discussion are not yet well understood. Here, we rely on computational methods ...

Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation

Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney ...

Atypical E2f functions are critical for pancreas polyploidization

The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f ...

Comparative analysis of uranium bioassociation with halophilic bacteria and archaea

Rock salt represents a potential host rock formation for the final disposal of radioactive waste. The interactions between indigenous microorganisms and radionuclides, e.g. uranium, need to be investigated to better predict the influence of microorganisms on the safety assessment of the repository. Hence, the association process of uranium with two microorganisms isolated from rock ...

Educational gradients in the use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan

Objectives In addition to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), tobacco companies have recently begun to sell heat-not-burn tobacco products, Ploom and iQOS in Japan. Previous research has reported an inverse association between combustible cigarette smoking and educational attainment, but little is known about the association for e-cigarettes, especially heat-not-burn tobacco ...

Stroke risk and outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease: Two nationwide studies

Background and aims Because the risk and outcomes of stroke in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were unclear, we evaluated these risks using a retrospective cohort study and a nested cohort study. Methods We used Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database to identify 1378 patients aged ≥20 years who had ESRD in 2000–2004. An ...

Multiscale modelling of blood flow in cerebral microcirculation: Details at capillary scale control accuracy at the level of the cortex

Aging or cerebral diseases may induce architectural modifications in human brain microvascular networks, such as capillary rarefaction. Such modifications limit blood and oxygen supply to the cortex, possibly resulting in energy failure and neuronal death. Modelling is key in understanding how these architectural modifications affect blood flow and mass transfers in such complex ...

Prognostic value of liver stiffness measurement for the liver-related surgical outcomes of patients under hepatic resection: A meta-analysis

Background Previous studies have discussed the liver stiffness measurement (LSM) performance on predicting liver-related surgical outcomes for patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) under hepatic resection, yet there is much variation in reporting and consistency of findings. Therefore, we report a meta-analysis on this issue. Methods We comprehensively searched PubMed, Embase, ...

Fast, quantitative, murine cardiac 19F MRI/MRS of PFCE-labeled progenitor stem cells and macrophages at 9.4T

Purpose To a) achieve cardiac 19F-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of perfluoro-crown-ether (PFCE) labeled cardiac progenitor stem cells (CPCs) and bone-derived bone marrow macrophages, b) determine label concentration and cellular load limits, and c) achieve spectroscopic and image-based quantification. Methods Theoretical simulations and experimental comparisons of ...

Impact of grouping complications on mortality in traumatic brain injury: A nationwide population-based study

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health issue with high mortality. Various complications of physiological and cognitive impairment may result in disability or death after TBI. Grouping of these complications could be treated as integrated post-TBI syndromes. To improve risk estimation, grouping TBI complications should be investigated, to better predict TBI mortality. ...

Variation in angler distribution and catch rates of stocked rainbow trout in a small reservoir

We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship of catch rates and angler party location for two days following a publicly announced put-and-take stocking of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Catch rates declined with time since stocking and distance from stocking. We hypothesized that opportunity for high catch rates would cause anglers to fish near the stocking location ...

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects differential lipid composition in mammary glands on low fat, high animal fat versus high fructose diets

The effects of consumption of different diets on the fatty acid composition in the mammary glands of SV40 T-antigen (Tag) transgenic mice, a well-established model of human triple-negative breast cancer, were investigated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging. Female C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice (n = 12) were divided into three groups at 4 weeks of age: ...

Characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for cryptic phthoxazolin A in Streptomyces avermitilis

Phthoxazolin A, an oxazole-containing polyketide, has a broad spectrum of anti-oomycete activity and herbicidal activity. We recently identified phthoxazolin A as a cryptic metabolite of Streptomyces avermitilis that produces the important anthelmintic agent avermectin. Even though genome data of S. avermitilis is publicly available, no plausible biosynthetic gene cluster for ...

The "Tracked Roaming Transect" and distance sampling methods increase the efficiency of underwater visual censuses

Underwater visual census (UVC) is the most common approach for estimating diversity, abundance and size of reef fishes in shallow and clear waters. Abundance estimation through UVC is particularly problematic in species occurring at low densities and/or highly aggregated because of their high variability at both spatial and temporal scales. The statistical power of experiments ...

Characterizing the field of Atomic Layer Deposition: Authors, topics, and collaborations

This paper describes how Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) has evolved over time using a combination of bibliometric, social network, and text analysis. We examined the rate of knowledge production as well as changes in authors, journals, and collaborators, showing a steady growth of ALD research. The study of the collaboration network of ALD scientists over time points out that the ...

Impaired IFN-α-mediated signal in dendritic cells differentiates active from latent tuberculosis

Individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may be infected and remain for the entire life in this condition defined as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or develop active tuberculosis (TB). Among the multiple factors governing the outcome of the infection, dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in dictating antibacterial immunity. However, current knowledge on the ...

Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in the Slovak Republic between 1993-2008

Objective Between the years 1993 and 2008, mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Slovak Republic have decreased by almost one quarter. However, this was a smaller decline than in neighbouring countries. The aim of this modelling study was therefore to quantify the contributions of risk factor changes and the use of evidence-based medical therapies to the CHD ...

High AHR expression in breast tumors correlates with expression of genes from several signaling pathways namely inflammation and endogenous tryptophan metabolism

Increasing epidemiological and animal experimental data provide substantial support for the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of AhR have been clearly demonstrated in rodent models of breast carcinogenesis and in several established human breast cancer cell lines following exposure to AhR ligands or AhR overexpression. However, relatively ...

Adaptation and validation of the Spanish version of the ORTO-15 questionnaire for the diagnosis of orthorexia nervosa

The aim of this study was the validation and analysis of the psychometric properties of a Spanish translation of the ORTO-15 questionnaire; an instrument designed to assess orthorexia nervosa behavior. Four hundred and fifty-four Spanish university students (65% women) aged between 18 and 51 years (M = 21.48 ± 0.31) completed the Spanish version of ORTO-15 and the Eating Disorders ...

Dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, and subclinical atherosclerosis in children and adolescents infected with HIV: The PositHIVe Health Study

HIV-infected children and adolescents may be at risk for cardiovascular disease due to chronic inflammation and exacerbation of risk factors. The aim of this study was as follows: 1) compare cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation, and carotid intima-media thickness (IMTc) between the HIV and control groups; 2) determine the association of HIV and antiretroviral (ART) ...

A hierarchical detection method in external communication for self-driving vehicles based on TDMA

Security is considered a major challenge for self-driving and semi self-driving vehicles. These vehicles depend heavily on communications to predict and sense their external environment used in their motion. They use a type of ad hoc network termed Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Unfortunately, VANETs are potentially exposed to many attacks on network and application level. ...

Serological and molecular inquiry of Chagas disease in an Afro-descendant settlement in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

Furnas do Dionísio is a Brazilian Afro-descendant settlement in the city of Jaraguari, 21.4 miles from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Approximately 96 families live in this quilombola (Maroon) settlement, also known in Brazil as a remnant community of descendants of African slaves. Recent studies found 20% of households were infested by triatomines, 18% of insects ...

Quality indicators for community care for older people: A systematic review

Background Health care systems that succeed in preventing long term care and hospital admissions of frail older people may substantially save on their public spending. The key might be found in high-quality care in the community. Quality Indicators (QIs) of a sufficient methodological level are a prerequisite to monitor, compare, and improve care quality. This systematic review ...