PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,867)

Binaural localization of musical pitch using interaural time differences in congenital amusia

Naturally occurring sounds are routinely periodic. The ability to phase-lock to such periodicity facilitates pitch perception and interaural time differences (ITDs) determination in binaural localization. We examined whether deficient pitch processing in individuals with congenital amusia (tone deafness) is accompanied by impaired ability to lateralize musical pitch at auditory...

No difference in effectiveness of treatment simplification to boosted or unboosted atazanavir plus lamivudine in virologically suppressed in HIV-1-infected patients

Background Simplification strategies of antiretroviral treatment represent effective tools for the reduction of drug-induced toxicity, resistance mutations in case of virological failure and costs. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATVrtv) or unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) plus lamivudine, and if low plasma or intracellular ATV...

Unrecognized myocardial infarction detected on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: Association with coronary artery calcium score and cardiovascular risk prediction scores in asymptomatic Asian cohort

Background To investigate the association between unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk prediction scores in asymptomatic Asian subjects. Materials and methods Total 872 asymptomatic subjects without prior cardiovascular event (male:female, 817:55; age, 53.88 ± 5.91) who...

When to reveal what you feel: How emotions towards antagonistic out-group and third party audiences are expressed strategically

In intergroup conflicts, expressed emotions influence how others see and react to those who express them. Here, we investigated whether this in turn implies that emotions may be expressed strategically. We tested whether emotion expression can differ from emotion experience, and whether emotion expression (more than emotion experience) is used to pursue specific goals...

The relationship between depression and cognitive function in adults with cardiovascular risk: Evidence from a randomised attention-controlled trial

Background and aim This study assessed the association between depressive symptom severity and cognition in middle-to-older aged adults with mild-to-moderate depression and cardiovascular risk factors using an online test battery (CogState) and whether changes in depressive symptoms over 3 months were associated with changes in cognition. Methods Participants (mean age = 57.8...

Effects of single-point acupuncture (HT7) in the prevention of test anxiety: Results of a RCT

Background The number of students using neuro enhancement to improve their performance and to prevent test anxiety is increasing. The acupuncture point Heart 7 (HT7) has been described as being prominent in reducing states of anxiety. Methods We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled, two-armed pilot trial to investigate the efficacy of a single-point acupuncture treatment at...

A mechanism of T cell dependent selection of antigen engaged Germinal Center B cells

A model of B cell affinity selection is proposed, and an explanation of peripheral tolerance mechanisms through antibody repertoire editing is presented. We show that affinity discrimination between B cells is driven by a competition between obtaining T cell help and removal of B cells from the light zone, either through apoptosis or by a return to the dark zone of germinal...

Assessing the resilience of stochastic dynamic systems under partial observability

Resilience is a property of major interest for the design and analysis of generic complex systems. A system is resilient if it can adjust in response to disruptive shocks, and still provide the services it was designed for, without interruptions. In this work, we adapt a formal definition of resilience for constraint-based systems to a probabilistic framework derived from hidden...

Clinical reassessment of human embryo ploidy status between cleavage and blastocyst stage by Next Generation Sequencing

One of the most important limitations of genetic testing in preimplantation embryos is embryonic mosaicism, especially when performed on D3 with only a single blastomere evaluated. Previous publications, using Array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) to compare day 3 (D3) biopsies versus trophectoderm biopsies for the analysis of aneuploid embryos, showed similar high...

Relationship between digestive tract colonization and subsequent ventilator-associated pneumonia related to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae

Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common ICU-acquired infection. Recently, the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) has substantially increased in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk for VAP related to ESBLE could be helpful to improve the rate of appropriate initial antibiotic treatment...

Associations between increased intervention coverage for mothers and newborns and the number and quality of contacts between families and health workers: An analysis of cluster level repeat cross sectional survey data in Ethiopia

Background Survival of mothers and newborns depends on life-saving interventions reaching those in need. Recent evidence suggests that indicators of contact with health services are poor proxies for measures of coverage of life saving care and attention has shifted towards the quality of care provided during contacts. Methods and findings Regression analysis using data from...

A comprehensive assessment of patient reported symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well being in patients initiating direct acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: Results from a large US multi-center observational study

Background Symptom burden, medical comorbidities, and functional well-being of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) initiating direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in real-world clinical settings are not known. We characterized these patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among HCV-infected patients and explored associations with sociodemographic, liver disease, and...

Production of methane and ethylene from plastic in the environment

Mass production of plastics started nearly 70 years ago and the production rate is expected to double over the next two decades. While serving many applications because of their durability, stability and low cost, plastics have deleterious effects on the environment. Plastic is known to release a variety of chemicals during degradation, which has a negative impact on biota. Here...