PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 165,357)

The advantage of being slow: The quasi-neutral contact process

According to the competitive exclusion principle, in a finite ecosystem, extinction occurs naturally when two or more species compete for the same resources. An important question that arises is: when coexistence is not possible, which mechanisms confer an advantage to a given species against the other(s)? In general, it is expected that the species with the higher ...

Th17 cells are associated with protection from ventilator associated pneumonia

Background CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells and Interleukin (IL)-17A play an important role in clearing pathogens in mouse models of pneumonia. We hypothesized that numbers of Th17 cells and levels of IL-17A are associated with risk for nosocomial pneumonia in humans. Methods We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mechanically ventilated (n = 25) patients undergoing ...

The use of 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) as a non-invasive pharmacodynamic biomarker to determine the minimally pharmacologically active dose of AZD8835, a novel PI3Kα inhibitor

Background The phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway is frequently de-regulated and activated in human cancer and is an important therapeutic target. AZD8835 is a PI3K inhibitor, with selectivity against PI3K α and δ isoforms, which is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials. 18F-Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron ...

Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rfus) in Jiangsu province, China

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of ...

Minimum variance rooting of phylogenetic trees and implications for species tree reconstruction

Phylogenetic trees inferred using commonly-used models of sequence evolution are unrooted, but the root position matters both for interpretation and downstream applications. This issue has been long recognized; however, whether the potential for discordance between the species tree and gene trees impacts methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree has not been extensively studied. In ...

Biologically active recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in hairy root cultures and regenerated plantlets of Nicotiana tabacum L.

Hairy root culture is a potential alternative to conventional mammalian cell culture to produce recombinant proteins due to its ease in protein recovery, low costs and absence of potentially human pathogenic contaminants. The current study focussed to develop a new platform of a hairy root culture system from Nicotiana tabacum for the production of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO), ...

Identification of a common Ara h 3 epitope recognized by both the capture and the detection monoclonal antibodies in an ELISA detection kit

Allergy to peanuts has become a common and severe problem, especially in westernized countries. In this study, we evaluated the target and epitope specificity of the capture and detection mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used in a commercial peanut allergen detection platform. We first identified the target of these antibodies as Ara h 3 and then used an overlapping peptide array ...

Experimental study of ASCs combined with POC-PLA patch for the reconstruction of full-thickness chest wall defects

To explore the repairing effect of combination of adipose stem cells (ASCs) and composite scaffolds on CWR, the electrospun Poly 1, 8-octanediol-co-citric acid (POC)-poly-L-lactide acid (PLA) composite scaffolds were prepared, followed by in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of the scaffolds. Afterwards, ASCs were seeded on POC-PLA to construct the POC-PLA-ASCs ...

Anticoagulant action of low, physiologic, and high albumin levels in whole blood

Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein. Critical illness is often associated with altered, predominately decreased, serum albumin levels. This hypoalbuminaemia is usually corrected by administration of exogenous albumin. This study aimed to track the concentration-dependent influence of albumin on blood coagulation in vitro. Whole blood (WB) samples from 25 volunteers were ...

Unsupervised learning of temporal features for word categorization in a spiking neural network model of the auditory brain

The nature of the code used in the auditory cortex to represent complex auditory stimuli, such as naturally spoken words, remains a matter of debate. Here we argue that such representations are encoded by stable spatio-temporal patterns of firing within cell assemblies known as polychronous groups, or PGs. We develop a physiologically grounded, unsupervised spiking neural network ...

Protein expression patterns of cell cycle regulators in operable breast cancer

Background-Aim To evaluate the prognostic role of elaborate molecular clusters encompassing cyclin D1, cyclin E1, p21, p27 and p53 in the context of various breast cancer subtypes. Methods Cyclin E1, cyclin D1, p53, p21 and p27 were evaluated with immunohistochemistry in 1077 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from breast cancer patients who had been treated within clinical ...

The endogenous transposable element Tgm9 is suitable for generating knockout mutants for functional analyses of soybean genes and genetic improvement in soybean

In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from Intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase of the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 was mapped to the W4 locus, where the allele containing Tgm9 was termed w4-m. In this study we have demonstrated that previously identified morphological ...

Prevalence of visual impairment and outcomes of cataract surgery in Chaonan, South China

Purpose To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment (VI), and report the outcomes of cataract surgery in Chaonan Region, Guangdong Province, southern China Design Cross-sectional population-based survey Participants A total of 3484 participants including 1397 men (40.1%) and 2087 women (59.9%) aged ≥50 years were examined (94.2% response rate). Method A ...

BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2

We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the ...

Evaluating turnaround times for early infant diagnosis samples in Kenya from 2011-2014: A retrospective analysis of HITSystem program data

Long turnaround times (TAT) for the processing and posting of results of infant HIV DNA PCR samples can hinder the success of early infant diagnosis (EID) programs. The HITSystem is an eHealth intervention that alerts staff when services are overdue or results are delayed. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 3669 HIV-exposed infants enrolled in 15 Kenya hospital EID programs ...

Seminal plasma metabolomics approach for the diagnosis of unexplained male infertility

We used a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomics approach to obtain the metabolic profiling of unexplained male infertility (UMI), and identified seminal plasma biomarkers associated with UMI by a two-stage population study. A robust OPLS-DA model based on these identified metabolites was able to distinguish 82% of the UMI patients from health controls with ...

Orion: Detecting regions of the human non-coding genome that are intolerant to variation using population genetics

There is broad agreement that genetic mutations occurring outside of the protein-coding regions play a key role in human disease. Despite this consensus, we are not yet capable of discerning which portions of non-coding sequence are important in the context of human disease. Here, we present Orion, an approach that detects regions of the non-coding genome that are depleted of ...

Mapping the contact surfaces in the Lamin A:AIMP3 complex by hydrogen/deuterium exchange FT-ICR mass spectrometry

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases-interacting multifunctional protein3 (AIMP3/p18) is involved in the macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex via its interaction with several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Recent reports reveal a novel function of AIMP3 as a tumor suppressor by accelerating cellular senescence and causing defects in nuclear morphology. AIMP3 specifically mediates degradation ...

Large –scale wheat flour folic acid fortification program increases plasma folate levels among women of reproductive age in urban Tanzania

There is widespread vitamin and mineral deficiency problem in Tanzania with known deficiencies of at least vitamin A, iron, folate and zinc, resulting in lasting negative consequences especially on maternal health, cognitive development and thus the nation’s economic potential. Folate deficiency is associated with significant adverse health effects among women of reproductive age, ...

Breast conservation surgery versus total mastectomy among women with localized breast cancer in Soweto, South Africa

Purpose Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has become the preferred surgical option for the management of patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer in high-income countries. However, little is known about the distribution and determinants of BCS in low-and middle-income countries, especially those with high HIV prevalence. Methods We compared demographic and clinical characteristics ...

Embodied conversational agents for multimodal automated social skills training in people with autism spectrum disorders

Social skills training, performed by human trainers, is a well-established method for obtaining appropriate skills in social interaction. Previous work automated the process of social skills training by developing a dialogue system that teaches social communication skills through interaction with a computer avatar. Even though previous work that simulated social skills training ...

MyD88 contribution to ocular surface homeostasis

The cornea must maintain homeostasis, enabling rapid response to injury and microbial insult, to protect the eye from insult and infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical to this innate immune response through the recognition and response to pathogens. Myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is a key signaling molecule necessary for Toll-like receptor (TLR) and ...

Impact of PNPLA3 and IFNL3 polymorphisms on hepatic steatosis in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

Background and aims A recent meta-analysis revealed that the genotype PNPLA3 rs738409 GG is associated with a higher risk of hepatic steatosis (HS) in Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, controversial results were found regarding Asian populations. Furthermore, previous studies have shown a negative association between interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) rs12979860 ...

Genome-wide analysis of transcription factors during somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) cv. Grand Naine

Transcription factors BABY BOOM (BBM), WUSCHEL (WUS), BSD, LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC), LEAFY COTYLEDON LIKE (LIL), VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1), CUP SHAPED COTYLEDONS (CUC), BOLITA (BOL), and AGAMOUS LIKE (AGL) play a crucial role in somatic embryogenesis. In this study, we identified eighteen genes of these nine transcription factors families from the banana genome database. All genes were ...

Correlation between p-STAT3 overexpression and prognosis in lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective Previous studies have shown the correlation between p-STAT3 overexpression and prognosis in a variety of human tumors. However, their correlation in lung cancer remains controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the correlation between p-STAT3 overexpression and prognosis in lung cancer patients. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of ...