PLOS ONE

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List of Papers (Total 149,433)

A Method for Producing Protein Nanoparticles with Applications in Vaccines

A practical method is described for synthesizing conjugated protein nanoparticles using thioether (thiol-maleimide) cross-linking chemistry. This method fills the need for a reliable and reproducible synthesis of protein conjugate vaccines for preclinical studies, which can be adapted to produce comparable material for clinical studies. The described method appears to be generally ...

Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator ...

Evaluation of the Intussusception Risk after Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Finnish Infants

Background An association between rotavirus immunisation and intussusception (IS) has been suggested with present rotavirus vaccines in post-licensure studies. In Finland, rotavirus vaccination programme was implemented in September 2009 using a 2, 3, and 5 months schedule with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. By the end of 2013, it is estimated that 719 000 rotavirus vaccine ...

Genome-Wide Association Study for Incident Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease in Prospective Cohort Studies: The CHARGE Consortium

Background Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting. Methods We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 ...

The Physical Mechanism for Retinal Discrete Dark Noise: Thermal Activation or Cellular Ultraweak Photon Emission?

For several decades the physical mechanism underlying discrete dark noise of photoreceptors in the eye has remained highly controversial and poorly understood. It is known that the Arrhenius equation, which is based on the Boltzmann distribution for thermal activation, can model only a part (e.g. half of the activation energy) of the retinal dark noise experimentally observed for ...

Polysomnographic Characteristics of Sleep in Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background Research on sleep after stroke has focused mainly on sleep disordered breathing. However, the extend to which sleep physiology is altered in stroke survivors, how these alterations compare to healthy volunteers, and how sleep changes might affect recovery as well as physical and mental health has yet to be fully researched. Motivated by the view that a deeper ...

Indexed PCR Primers Induce Template-Specific Bias in Large-Scale DNA Sequencing Studies

Massively parallel sequencing is rapidly emerging as an efficient way to quantify biodiversity at all levels, from genetic variation and expression to ecological community assemblage. However, the number of reads produced per sequencing run far exceeds the number required per sample for many applications, compelling researchers to sequence multiple samples per run in order to ...

West Nile Virus Retinopathy and Associations with Long Term Neurological and Neurocognitive Sequelae

West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as an important vector-borne pathogen in North America, with more than 3 million estimated to have been infected. Retinopathy from WNV infection has been previously reported in acute cases, though those prior reports did not evaluate the risk of retinopathy based on clinical severity of neurologic disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional study ...

Oral Contraceptives and Multiple Sclerosis/Clinically Isolated Syndrome Susceptibility

Background The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rising in women. Objective To determine whether the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are associated with MS risk and whether this varies by progestin content. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study of females ages 14–48 years with incident MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) 2008–2011 from the ...

Role of Interaction and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase B in Regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase A

Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated chloride channel. Here, we demonstrate that nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B, NM23-H2) forms a functional complex with CFTR. In airway epithelia forskolin/IBMX significantly increases NDPK-B co-localisation with ...

Analysis of the Structure of Surgical Activity for a Suturing and Knot-Tying Task

Background Surgical tasks are performed in a sequence of steps, and technical skill evaluation includes assessing task flow efficiency. Our objective was to describe differences in task flow for expert and novice surgeons for a basic surgical task. Methods We used a hierarchical semantic vocabulary to decompose and annotate maneuvers and gestures for 135 instances of a surgeon’s ...

Orientation-Based Control of Microfluidics

Most microfluidic chips utilize off-chip hardware (syringe pumps, computer-controlled solenoid valves, pressure regulators, etc.) to control fluid flow on-chip. This expensive, bulky, and power-consuming hardware severely limits the utility of microfluidic instruments in resource-limited or point-of-care contexts, where the cost, size, and power consumption of the instrument must ...

Zebrafish Caudal Fin Angiogenesis Assay—Advanced Quantitative Assessment Including 3-Way Correlative Microscopy

Background Researchers evaluating angiomodulating compounds as a part of scientific projects or pre-clinical studies are often confronted with limitations of applied animal models. The rough and insufficient early-stage compound assessment without reliable quantification of the vascular response counts, at least partially, to the low transition rate to clinics. Objective To ...

Statistical Efficiency in Distance Sampling

Distance sampling is a technique for estimating the abundance of animals or other objects in a region, allowing for imperfect detection. This paper evaluates the statistical efficiency of the method when its assumptions are met, both theoretically and by simulation. The theoretical component of the paper is a derivation of the asymptotic variance penalty for the distance sampling ...

Prediction of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in Patients Treated with Corifollitropin alfa or rFSH in a GnRH Antagonist Protocol

Study Question What is the threshold for the prediction of moderate to severe or severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) based on the number of growing follicles ≥ 11 mm and/or estradiol (E2) levels? Summary Answer The optimal threshold of follicles ≥11 mm on the day of hCG to identify those at risk was 19 for both moderate to severe OHSS and for severe OHSS. Estradiol (E2) ...

Hormesis in Cholestatic Liver Disease; Preconditioning with Low Bile Acid Concentrations Protects against Bile Acid-Induced Toxicity

Introduction Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during ...

Whole-Genome Sequencing for the Investigation of a Hospital Outbreak of MRSA in China

Staphylococcus aureus is a globally disseminated drug-resistant bacterial species. It remains a leading cause of hospital-acquired infection, primarily among immunocompromised patients. In 2012, the Affiliated People’s Hospital of Jiangsu University experienced a putative outbreak of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that affected 12 patients in the Neurosurgery Department. In ...

Characterization of Scattered X-Ray Photons in Dental Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

Purpose Scatter is a very important artifact causing factor in dental cone-beam CT (CBCT), which has a major influence on the detectability of details within images. This work aimed to improve the image quality of dental CBCT through scatter correction. Methods Scatter was estimated in the projection domain from the low frequency component of the difference between the raw CBCT ...

CG Methylation Covaries with Differential Gene Expression between Leaf and Floral Bud Tissues of Brachypodium distachyon

DNA methylation has the potential to influence plant growth and development through its influence on gene expression. To date, however, the evidence from plant systems is mixed as to whether patterns of DNA methylation vary significantly among tissues and, if so, whether these differences affect tissue-specific gene expression. To address these questions, we analyzed both bisulfite ...

Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial

There is a well-established link between hydration and improved cognitive performance among adults, with evidence of similar findings among children. No trials have investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in hot and arid low-resource settings. We conducted a randomized-controlled trial in five schools with limited water access in ...

Evaluation of Equivalent Keratometry Readings Obtained by Pentacam HR (High Resolution)

Purpose To assess the repeatability of Equivalent Keratometry Readings (EKRs) obtained by the Pentacam HR (high resolution) in untreated and post-LASIK eyes, and to compare them with the keratometry (K) values obtained by other algorithms. Methods In this prospective study, 100 untreated eyes and 71 post-LASIK eyes were included. In the untreated group, each eye received 3 ...

The Natural Product Resveratrol Inhibits Yeast Cell Separation by Extensively Modulating the Transcriptional Landscape and Reprogramming the Intracellular Metabolome

An increasing number of studies have shown that the promising compound resveratrol treats multiple diseases, such as cancer and aging; however, the resveratrol mode-of-action (MoA) remains largely unknown. Here, by virtue of multiple omics approaches, we adopted fission yeast as a model system with the goal of dissecting the common MoA of the anti-proliferative activity of ...

microRNA-34a-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Microglial-Enriched Triggering Receptor and Phagocytosis-Sensor TREM2 in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

The aggregation of Aβ42-peptides and the formation of drusen in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are due in part to the inability of homeostatic phagocytic mechanisms to clear self-aggregating Aβ42-peptides from the extracellular space. The triggering receptor expressed in myeloid/microglial cells-2 (TREM2), a trans-membrane-spanning, sensor-receptor of the ...

Sulforaphane Preconditioning Sensitizes Human Colon Cancer Cells towards the Bioreductive Anticancer Prodrug PR-104A

The chemoprotective properties of sulforaphane (SF), derived from cruciferous vegetables, are widely acknowledged to arise from its potent induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes. However, much less is known about the impact of SF on the efficacy of cancer therapy through the modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes. To identify proteins modulated by a low ...

Induced Treg Cells Augment the Th17-Mediated Intestinal Inflammatory Response in a CTLA4-Dependent Manner

Th17 cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are thought to promote and suppress inflammatory responses, respectively. However, whether they counteract each other or synergize in regulating immune reactions remains controversial. To determine their interactions, we describe the results of experiments employing mouse models of intestinal inflammation by transferring ...