PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 194,105)

The provision of urban green space and its accessibility: Spatial data effects in Brussels

Urban green space (UGS) has many environmental and social benefits. UGS provision and access are increasingly considered in urban policies and must rely on data and indicators that can capture variations in the distribution of UGS within cities. There is no consensus about how UGS, and their provision and access, must be defined from different land use data types. Here we...

Diagnoses and time to recovery among injured recreational runners in the RUN CLEVER trial

Purpose The purpose of the present study was to describe the incidence proportion of different types of running-related injuries (RRI) among recreational runners and to determine their time to recovery. Methods A sub-analysis of the injured runners included in the 839-person, 24-week randomized trial named Run Clever. During follow-up, the participants reported levels of pain in...

An economic analysis of patient controlled remifentanil and epidural analgesia as pain relief in labour (RAVEL trial); a randomised controlled trial

Objective To compare the costs of a strategy of patient controlled remifentanil versus epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour. Design We performed a multicentre randomised controlled trial in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands, the RAVEL trial. Costs were analysed from a health care perspective alongside the RAVEL trial. Population Pregnant women of intermediate to high risk...

Home range size, vegetation density, and season influences prey use by coyotes (Canis latrans)

To ensure reproductive success, Canis species establish contiguous mosaics of territories in suitable habitats to partition space and defend limiting resources. Consequently, Canis species can exert strong effects on prey populations locally because of their year-round maintenance of territories. We assessed prey use by coyotes (Canis latrans) by sampling scats from within known...

Conceptual model for the health technology assessment of current and novel interventions in rheumatoid arthritis

The objective of this study was to evaluate current approaches to economic modeling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and propose a new conceptual model for evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of RA interventions. We followed recommendations from the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research-Society of Medical Decision Making (ISPOR-SMDM) Modeling Good Research...

Inverse dynamics of mechanical multibody systems: An improved algorithm that ensures consistency between kinematics and external forces

Inverse dynamics is a technique in which measured kinematics and, possibly, external forces are used to calculate net joint torques in a rigid body linked segment model. However, kinematics and forces are usually not consistent due to incorrect modelling assumptions and measurement errors. This is commonly resolved by introducing ‘residual forces and torques’ which compensate for...

Seasonal changes in dry matter yield from Karst pastures as influenced by morphoclimatic features

Pastures are strongly affected by local environmental variables in terms of their species richness, plant composition and herbage production. A multi-site monitoring study was conducted over three years to investigate the influence of morphoclimatic factors on the seasonal variations in dry matter (DM) yield from Karst pastures. Seven sites located on the Italian and Slovenian...

Only giving orders? An experimental study of the sense of agency when giving or receiving commands

In human societies, agents are assumed to experience being the author of their own actions. These basic motoric experiences of action are influenced by social hierarchies, leading to surprising and morally significant results. Here we ask whether, under coercion, the sense of agency and responsibility pass from the person who receives orders to the person who gives them...

Detection of slow port scans in flow-based network traffic

Frequently, port scans are early indicators of more serious attacks. Unfortunately, the detection of slow port scans in company networks is challenging due to the massive amount of network data. This paper proposes an innovative approach for preprocessing flow-based data which is specifically tailored to the detection of slow port scans. The preprocessing chain generates new...

Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular alfaxalone and its echocardiographic, cardiopulmonary and sedative effects in healthy dogs

The pharmacokinetics and the effects of a single intramuscular (IM) dose of alfaxalone on sedation and cardiopulmonary and echocardiographic variables was studied in dogs. Twelve healthy adult Beagles (3 females, 9 males) were used in this prospective controlled cross-over trial. Echocardiography was performed with and without 4 mg kg-1 alfaxalone IM with a week wash-out interval...

Binaural localization of musical pitch using interaural time differences in congenital amusia

Naturally occurring sounds are routinely periodic. The ability to phase-lock to such periodicity facilitates pitch perception and interaural time differences (ITDs) determination in binaural localization. We examined whether deficient pitch processing in individuals with congenital amusia (tone deafness) is accompanied by impaired ability to lateralize musical pitch at auditory...

No difference in effectiveness of treatment simplification to boosted or unboosted atazanavir plus lamivudine in virologically suppressed in HIV-1-infected patients

Background Simplification strategies of antiretroviral treatment represent effective tools for the reduction of drug-induced toxicity, resistance mutations in case of virological failure and costs. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATVrtv) or unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) plus lamivudine, and if low plasma or intracellular ATV...

No evidence for morphometric associations of the amygdala and hippocampus with the five-factor model personality traits in relatively healthy young adults

Despite the important functional role of the amygdala and hippocampus in socioemotional functioning, there have been limited adequately powered studies testing how the structure of these regions relates to putatively relevant personality traits such as neuroticism. Additionally, recent advances in MRI analysis methods provide unprecedented accuracy in measuring these structures...

The Extreme Climate Event Database (EXCEED): Development of a picture database composed of drought and flood stimuli

The present study introduces the Extreme Climate Event Database (EXCEED), a picture database intended to induce emotionally salient stimuli reactions in the context of natural hazards associated with global climate change and related extreme events. The creation of the database was motivated by the need to better understand the impact that the increase in natural disasters...

Association between age at onset of independent walking and objectively measured sedentary behavior is mediated by moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in primary school children

Objective Age at onset of walking has been shown as an early predictor of physical activity in infants and children. However, little is known about whether age at onset of walking may predict sedentary behavior (SB). The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the timing of onset of walking and objectively measured SB, and whether this association is...

Lower limb sagittal kinematic and kinetic modeling of very slow walking for gait trajectory scaling

Lower extremity powered exoskeletons (LEPE) are an emerging technology that assists people with lower-limb paralysis. LEPE for people with complete spinal cord injury walk at very slow speeds, below 0.5m/s. For the able-bodied population, very slow walking uses different neuromuscular, locomotor, postural, and dynamic balance control. Speed dependent kinetic and kinematic...

A self-adjuvanted nanoparticle based vaccine against infectious bronchitis virus

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) affects poultry respiratory, renal and reproductive systems. Currently the efficacy of available live attenuated or killed vaccines against IBV has been challenged. We designed a novel IBV vaccine alternative using a highly innovative platform called Self-Assembling Protein Nanoparticle (SAPN). In this vaccine, B cell epitopes derived from the...

Unrecognized myocardial infarction detected on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: Association with coronary artery calcium score and cardiovascular risk prediction scores in asymptomatic Asian cohort

Background To investigate the association between unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiovascular risk prediction scores in asymptomatic Asian subjects. Materials and methods Total 872 asymptomatic subjects without prior cardiovascular event (male:female, 817:55; age, 53.88 ± 5.91) who...

Readmissions of adults within three age groups following hospitalization for pneumonia: Analysis from the Nationwide Readmissions Database

Background While 30-day readmissions following hospitalization for pneumonia have been well-studied in the elderly, their burden in young adults remains poorly understood. Objective To study patterns of readmissions following hospitalization for pneumonia across age groups and insurance payers. Methods In the Nationwide Readmission Database for the years 2013 and 2014 we...

Enabling tomography with low-cost C-arm systems

In scenarios where the use of a Computed Tomography (CT) is difficult, such as during surgery or in the ICU, the use of a C-arm system to generate tomographic information could contribute with interesting additional clinical information. Recent days are seeing the development of the so-called cone-beam CT (CBCT) based on advanced motorized isocentric C-arm systems. To be able to...

Food cue-induced craving in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder

Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED) experience more frequent and intense food cravings than individuals without binge eating. However, it is currently unclear whether they also show larger food cue-induced increases in craving (i.e., food cue reactivity) than those without binge eating, as suggested by conditioning theories of binge eating. A...

Effect of seawater temperature, pH, and nutrients on the distribution and character of low abundance shallow water benthic foraminifera in the Galápagos

In order to help predict the effects of anthropogenic stressors on shallow water carbonate environments, it is important to focus research on regions containing natural oceanographic gradients, particularly with respect to interactions between oceanography and ecologically sensitive carbonate producers. The Galápagos Archipelago, an island chain in the eastern equatorial Pacific...

Simple changes of individual studies can improve the reproducibility of the biomedical scientific process as a whole

We developed a new probabilistic model to assess the impact of recommendations rectifying the reproducibility crisis (by publishing both positive and ‘negative‘ results and increasing statistical power) on competing objectives, such as discovering causal relationships, avoiding publishing false positive results, and reducing resource consumption. In contrast to recent...