PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 193,406)

HappyTools: A software for high-throughput HPLC data processing and quantitation

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is widely used for absolute quantitation. The advent of new columns and HPLC technology has enabled higher sample throughput, and hence, larger scale studies that perform quantitation on different sample types (e.g. healthy controls vs. patients with rheumatoid arthritis) using HPLC are becoming feasible. However, there remains a lack...

PASI: A novel pathway method to identify delicate group effects

Pathway analysis is a common approach in diverse biomedical studies, yet the currently-available pathway tools do not typically support the increasingly popular personalized analyses. Another weakness of the currently-available pathway methods is their inability to handle challenging data with only modest group-based effects compared to natural individual variation. In an effort...

Evaluation of glycoprotein Ov8 as a potential antigen for an OvHV-2-specific diagnostic assay

Gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus establish clinically unapparent persistent infections in reservoir species. Transmission of some of these viruses, including alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), to clinically susceptible species in the order Artiodactyla can result in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a usually fatal lymphoproliferative...

Do outpatient statins and ACEIs/ARBs have synergistic effects in reducing the risk of pneumonia? A population-based case-control study

Whether statins and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) / angiotensin receptor blockors (ARBs) are associated with reduced risks of infection events is still inconclusive. This study aimed to explore the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia among patients who had received treatment with ACEIs/ARBs and/or statins using a population-based dataset. This study...

HIV incidence among sexual health clinic attendees in England: First estimates for black African heterosexuals using a biomarker, 2009-2013

Introduction The HIV epidemic in England is largely concentrated among heterosexuals who are predominately black African and men who have sex with men (MSM). We present for the first time trends in annual HIV incidence for adults attending sexual health clinics, where 80% of all HIV diagnoses are made. Methods We identified newly diagnosed incident HIV using a recent infection...

Association of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene functional variant C1858T, HLA-DQ/DR genotypes and autoantibodies with susceptibility to type-1 diabetes mellitus in Kuwaiti Arabs

The incidence of type-1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) has increased steadily in Kuwait during recent years and it is now considered amongst the high-incidence countries. An interaction between susceptibility genes, immune system mediators and environmental factors predispose susceptible individuals to T1DM. We have determined the prevalence of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor...

A mobile clinic approach to the delivery of community-based mental health services in rural Haiti

This study evaluates the use of a mental health mobile clinic to overcome two major challenges to the provision of mental healthcare in resource-limited settings: the shortage of trained specialists; and the need to improve access to safe, effective, and culturally sound care in community settings. Employing task-shifting and supervision, mental healthcare was largely delivered...

Optical coherence tomography findings as a predictor of clinical course in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion treated with ranibizumab

Purpose To examine the relationship between optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and clinical course in eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR). Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Thirty eyes of 30 patients with BRVO treated with IVR. Methods All patients received 1 initial IVR followed by repeated...

An Eigenspace approach for detecting multiple space-time disease clusters: Application to measles hotspots detection in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Identifying the abnormally high-risk regions in a spatiotemporal space that contains an unexpected disease count is helpful to conduct surveillance and implement control strategies. The EigenSpot algorithm has been recently proposed for detecting space-time disease clusters of arbitrary shapes with no restriction on the distribution and quality of the data, and has shown some...

Viewers can keep up with fast subtitles: Evidence from eye movements

People watch subtitled audiovisual materials more than ever before. With the proliferation of subtitled content, we are also witnessing an increase in subtitle speeds. However, there is an ongoing controversy about what optimum subtitle speeds should be. This study looks into whether viewers can keep up with increasingly fast subtitles and whether the way people cope with...

Adolescent religious attendance and spirituality—Are they associated with leisure-time choices?

Background Spirituality and religious attendance (RA) have been associated with personal attitudes and values, and this may affect lifestyle. The aim of this study was to explore their association with adolescent leisure-time choices in a highly secular environment. Methods A nationally representative sample of adolescents (n = 4,182, 14.4±1.1 years, 48.6% boys) participated in...

Mitochondrial dysfunction reduces yeast replicative lifespan by elevating RAS-dependent ROS production by the ER-localized NADPH oxidase Yno1

Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is associated with cellular dysfunction, disease etiology, and senescence. Here, we used the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly studied for cellular aging, to demonstrate how defective mitochondrial function affects yeast replicative lifespan (RLS). We show that RLS of...

A novel gel liner system with embedded electrodes for use with upper limb myoelectric prostheses

We present the development and evaluation of a gel liner system for upper limb prosthesis users that enables acquisition of electromyographic (myoelectric) control signals through embedded electrodes and flexible, conductive fabric leads. This liner system is constructed using a manufacturing approach rather than by modifying a commercially available liner. To evaluate the...

Multigenerational effects of bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol exposure on F2 California mice (Peromyscus californicus) pup vocalizations

Rodent pups use vocalizations to communicate with one or both parents in biparental species, such as California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Previous studies have shown California mice developmentally exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) or ethinyl estradiol (EE), demonstrate later compromised parental behaviors. Reductions in F1 parental behaviors...

Patients' perceptions of their experiences with nurse-patient communication in oncology settings: A focused ethnographic study

Background The nursing shortage and its impact on patient care are well-documented global issues. Patients living with cancer as a chronic illness have many psychosocial problems and often lack adequate support as a result of ineffective nurse-patient communication. A review of the literature on factors influencing the delivery of psychosocial care to cancer patients indicates...

Multigene phylogeny supports diversification of four-eyed fishes and one-sided livebearers (Cyprinodontiformes: Anablepidae) related to major South American geological events

The high diversity of Neotropical fishes has been attributed to major South American palaeogeographic events, such as Andean uplift, rise of the Isthmus of Panama and marine transgressions. However, the unavailability of temporal information about evolution and diversification of some fish groups prevents the establishment of robust hypotheses about correlations between species...

Bias due to differential and non-differential disease- and exposure misclassification in studies of vaccine effectiveness

Background Studies of vaccine effectiveness (VE) rely on accurate identification of vaccination and cases of vaccine-preventable disease. In practice, diagnostic tests, clinical case definitions and vaccination records often present inaccuracies, leading to biased VE estimates. Previous studies investigated the impact of non-differential disease misclassification on VE estimation...

Body weight perception, disordered weight control behaviors, and depressive symptoms among Korean adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014

Background/ Purpose Despite emerging evidence suggesting harmful influences of accurate weight perception on psychological health among individuals with obesity, little is known about the association in Asian populations. The aim of this study was investigate the association between body weight perception and depressive symptoms among Korean adults, and potential differential...

The economic burden of inpatient care of depression in Poznan (Poland) and Kiel (Germany) in 2016

Depression is a global health problem associated with a significant public health burden and costs. Although studies on costs of diseases are being considered as an increasingly important factor for health policies, information concerning costs of inpatient care of depression is still insufficient. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate costs of hospitalization of...

Modeling human early otic sensory cell development with induced pluripotent stem cells

The inner ear represents a promising system to develop cell-based therapies from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In the developing ear, Notch signaling plays multiple roles in otic region specification and for cell fate determination. Optimizing hiPSC induction for the generation of appropriate numbers of otic progenitors and derivatives, such as hair cells, may...

Enhanced transformation of incidentally learned knowledge into explicit memory by dopaminergic modulation

During incidental learning statistical regularities are extracted from the environment without the intention to learn. Acquired implicit memory of these regularities can affect behavior in the absence of awareness. However, conscious insight in the underlying regularities can also develop during learning. Such emergence of explicit memory is an important learning mechanism that...

Overwintering aggregations are part of Hippodamia undecimnotata’s (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) mating system

Aggregation during diapause is a common phenomenon in arthropods that nevertheless remains poorly understood. The most commonly claimed benefit is that survival is higher in aggregations but animal aggregations could also be driven by sexual selection. In this perspective, we investigated whether aggregations in insects could be part of their mating system. We studied the...

Stalled decline in infant mortality among Palestine refugees in the Gaza Strip since 2006

Background The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has periodically estimated infant mortality rates (IMR) among Palestine refugees in the Gaza Strip (Gaza). These surveys have recorded a decline from 127 per 1000 live births in 1960 to 20.2 in 2006. Thereafter, a survey revealed an IMR of 22.4 in 2011. Alerted by these findings...

An investigation of the determinants of quality of life in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome

Background Young people with Down syndrome experience varying abilities in activities of daily living, cognitive functioning, behaviour and social skills. The aim of this research was to investigate, from a carer’s perspective, the factors that influenced the quality of life of these young people. Methods Families of young people with Down syndrome (n = 197), aged 16–31 years...

Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening

Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1–2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar...