PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,258)

The impact of the protein interactome on the syntenic structure of mammalian genomes

Conserved synteny denotes evolutionary preserved gene order across species. It is not well understood to which degree functional relationships between genes are preserved in syntenic blocks. Here we investigate whether protein-coding genes conserved in mammalian syntenic blocks encode gene products that serve the common functional purpose of interacting at protein level, i.e. ...

How TAVI registries report clinical outcomes—A systematic review of endpoints based on VARC-2 definitions

Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been demonstrated to be an alternative treatment for severe aortic stenosis in patients considered as high surgical risk. Since its first human implantation by Cribier et al., TAVI has been shown to increase survival rate and quality of life for high surgical risks patients. The objective of this study is to provide an ...

Caretakers' perspectives of paediatric TB and implications for care-seeking behaviours in Southern Mozambique

Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important public health concern, especially in poorly resourced settings. TB diagnosis is challenging, particularly for children, who are the most vulnerable to its′ impacts. Lack of knowledge and awareness of the disease compromises prompt diagnosis and treatment compliance. Objective To gain insights regarding caretakers′ knowledge of the ...

Potential DNA barcodes for Melilotus species based on five single loci and their combinations

Melilotus, an annual or biennial herb, belongs to the tribe Trifolieae (Leguminosae) and consists of 19 species. As an important green manure crop, diverse Melilotus species have different values as feed and medicine. To identify different Melilotus species, we examined the efficiency of five candidate regions as barcodes, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and two ...

Minimizing nocebo effects by conditioning with verbal suggestion: A randomized clinical trial in healthy humans

Nocebo effects, i.e., adverse treatment effects which are induced by patients’ expectations, are known to contribute to the experience of physical symptoms such as pain and itch. A better understanding of how to minimize nocebo responses might eventually contribute to enhanced treatment effects. However, little is known about how to reduce nocebo effects. In the current randomized ...

Auto-correlation in the motor/imaginary human EEG signals: A vision about the FDFA fluctuations

In this paper we analyzed, by the FDFA root mean square fluctuation (rms) function, the motor/imaginary human activity produced by a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG). We utilized the Physionet on-line databank, a publicly available database of human EEG signals, as a standardized reference database for this study. Herein, we report the use of detrended fluctuation analysis ...

Characterization of intravascular cellular activation in relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women

Objective Mechanisms and interactions among intravascular cells contributing to development of subclinical atherosclerosis are poorly understood. In women, both menopausal status and pregnancy history influence progression of atherosclerosis. This study examined activation and interactions among blood elements with subclinical atherosclerosis in menopausal women with known ...

Generation of a serum free CHO DG44 cell line stably producing a broadly protective anti-influenza virus monoclonal antibody

Because of the broad neutralization and in vivo protection across influenza A and influenza B virus strains, monoclonal antibody CR9114 is widely used in influenza virus research as a positive control in many experiments. To produce amounts sufficient for the demand requires regular transient transfections, resulting in varying yield as well as differing batch to batch quality. ...

Non-governmental organization facilitation of a community-based nutrition and health program: Effect on program exposure and associated infant feeding practices in rural India

Background Integrated nutrition and health programs seek to reduce undernutrition by educating child caregivers about infant feeding and care. Data on the quality of program implementation and consequent effects on infant feeding practices are limited. This study evaluated the effectiveness of enhancing a nutrition and health program on breastfeeding and complementary-feeding ...

Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production

As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. ...

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis poststroke: More new granule cells but aberrant morphology and impaired spatial memory

Stroke significantly stimulates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus, though the functional role of this postlesional response is mostly unclear. Recent findings suggest that newborn neurons generated in the context of stroke may fail to correctly integrate into pre-existing networks. We hypothesized that increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus following stroke is associated ...

Identification of a mouse Lactobacillus johnsonii strain with deconjugase activity against the FXR antagonist T-β-MCA

Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity against the bile acid tauro-beta-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) was recently reported to mediate host bile acid, glucose, and lipid homeostasis via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway. An earlier study correlated decreased Lactobacillus abundance in the cecum with increased concentrations of intestinal T-β-MCA, an FXR antagonist. While ...

Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the ...

Evaluation of auditory perception development in neonates by quantitative electroencephalography and auditory event-related potentials

Objective The present study was performed to investigate neonatal auditory perception function by quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and auditory event-related potentials (aERPs) and identify the characteristics of auditory perception development in newborns. Methods Fifty-three normal full-term neonates were divided into three groups according their age in days. An ...

Longitudinal multiparameter single-cell analysis of macaques immunized with pneumococcal protein-conjugated or unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines reveals distinct antigen specific memory B cell repertoires

Background The efficacy of protein-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines has been well characterized for children. The level of protection conferred by unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines remains less clear, particularly for elderly individuals who have had prior antigenic experience through immunization with unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines or natural exposure to ...

Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development

Background COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD), and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment ...

A quantitative systems pharmacology approach, incorporating a novel liver model, for predicting pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions

All pharmaceutical companies are required to assess pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and mathematical prediction helps to select the best NCE candidate with regard to adverse effects resulting from a DDI before any costly clinical studies. Most current models assume that the liver is a homogeneous organ where the majority of the ...

Identification of transforming growth factor-beta-regulated microRNAs and the microRNA-targetomes in primary lung fibroblasts

Background Lung fibroblasts are involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis, which is mainly regulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and are therefore crucial in lung tissue repair and remodeling. Abnormal repair and remodeling has been observed in lung diseases like COPD. As miRNA levels can be influenced by TGF-β, we hypothesized that TGF-β influences miRNA ...

Reduced proliferation of endothelial colony-forming cells in unprovoked venous thromboembolic disease as a consequence of endothelial dysfunction

Background Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) is a public health problem. We recently reported that endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) derived from endothelial cells (EC) (ECFC-ECs) from patients with VTD have a dysfunctional state. For this study, we proposed that a dysfunctional status of these cells generates a reduction of its proliferative ability, which is also ...

For how many days and what types of group activities should older Japanese adults be involved in to maintain health? A 4-year longitudinal study

Objective Studies have suggested that frequent participation in social groups contributes to the well-being of older people. The primary aim of this study was to identify the number of days older adults should participate in the activities of social groups to maintain their health for 4 years. This study also aimed to examine whether the effective frequency differs by the type of ...

Social interactions promote adaptive resource defense in ants

Social insects vigorously defend their nests against con- and heterospecific competitors. Collective defense is also seen at highly profitable food sources. Aggressive responses are elicited or promoted by several means of communication, e.g. alarm pheromones and other chemical markings. In this study, we demonstrate that the social environment and interactions among colony members ...

Quality of life measures predict cardiovascular health and physical performance in chronic renal failure patients

Background Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience complex functional and structural changes of the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal system. This results in reduced exercise tolerance, quality of life and ultimately premature death. We investigated the relationship between subjective measures of health related quality of life and objective, standardised ...

Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin

Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and ...

Prevalence of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China

Objectives The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and obesity-related risk factors in southern China. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 15,364 participants aged 15 years and older was conducted from November 2013 to August 2014 in Jiangxi Province, China, using questionnaire forms and physical measurements. The physical ...

Pattern and severity of multimorbidity among patients attending primary care settings in Odisha, India

Multimorbidity is increasingly the primary concern of healthcare systems globally with substantial implications for patient outcomes and resource cost. A critical knowledge gap exists as to the magnitude of multimorbidity in primary care practice in low and middle income countries with available information limited to prevalence. In India, primary care forms the bulk of the health ...