PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 182,340)

The effect of electronic monitoring feedback on medication adherence and clinical outcomes: A systematic review

Objective This study aims to assess the efficacy of Electronic Monitoring Feedback (EMF) as an intervention to improve medication adherence (i.e. dose- or full adherence) and clinical outcomes in adult patients. Methods A systematic search was performed in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Randomised controlled trials ...

Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns

In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and recurrence plots (RPs) to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or ...

Behavioral testing of minipigs transgenic for the Huntington gene—A three-year observational study

Background Large animal models of Huntington’s disease (HD) may increase the reliability of translating preclinical findings to humans. Long live expectancy offers opportunities particularly for disease modifying approaches, but also challenges. The transgenic (tg) HD minipig model assessed in this study exhibits a high genetic homology with humans, similar body weight, and ...

Density-dependent signaling: An alternative hypothesis on the function of chemical signaling in a non-territorial solitary carnivore

Brown bears are known to use rubbing behavior as a means of chemical communication, but the function of this signaling is unclear. One hypothesis that has gained support is that male bears rub to communicate dominance to other males. We tested the communication of dominance hypothesis in a low-density brown bear population in southeast British Columbia. We contrasted rubbing rates ...

Phytochemical characterization of the Vochysia rufa (Vochysiaceae) extract and its effects on oxidative stress in the pancreata of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Aqueous extract of macerated Vochysia rufa stem bark has been commonly used in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects of an extract of V. rufa on the pancreata of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Animals received one of the following treatments daily by oral gavage: water (diabetic-control), V. rufa extract ...

Contrasting resting-state fMRI abnormalities from sickle and non-sickle anemia

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic blood disorder that is often associated with acute and chronic cerebrovascular complications, including strokes and impaired cognition. Using functional resting state magnetic resonance images, we performed whole-brain analysis of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF), to detect areas of spontaneous blood oxygenation level ...

What style of leadership do women in STEMM fields perform? Findings from an international survey

It is widely acknowledged that women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) fields are underrepresented in leadership globally. However, little is known about how leadership styles of women in STEMM relate to this underrepresentation. This article discusses findings from a survey examining how 61 women in STEMM define leadership and describe their ...

Effects of forest conversion on soil microbial communities depend on soil layer on the eastern Tibetan Plateau of China

Forest land-use changes have long been suggested to profoundly affect soil microbial communities. However, how forest type conversion influences soil microbial properties remains unclear in Tibetan boreal forests. The aim of this study was to explore variations of soil microbial profiles in the surface organic layer and subsurface mineral soil among three contrasting forests ...

The effect of cavernous nerve traction on erectile function in rats

We performed this study to evaluate the effect of cavernous nerve (CN) traction on erectile function in rats. Thirty-two 8- week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, 1-minute CN traction, 2-minute CN traction, and 2-minute CN crush. CN traction was performed using a glass hook with a tensile force of 0.2 Newton. One month later, the mean arterial pressure ...

Activity recognition with wearable sensors on loose clothing

Observing human motion in natural everyday environments (such as the home), has evoked a growing interest in the development of on-body wearable sensing technology. However, wearable sensors suffer from motion artefacts introduced by the non-rigid attachment of sensors to the body, and the prevailing view is that it is necessary to eliminate these artefacts. This paper presents ...

Thrombocytopenia in neonatal sepsis: Incidence, severity and risk factors

Objectives Thrombocytopenia is a frequent problem in neonatal sepsis and is among the most predictive, independent risk factors for sepsis-associated mortality. This study aims to clarify the occurrence, severity and duration of thrombocytopenia in neonatal sepsis. Study design A cohort study was carried out among all neonates with proven culture positive sepsis that were admitted ...

Incidence of DAA failure and the clinical impact of retreatment in real-life patients treated in the advanced stage of liver disease: Interim evaluations from the PITER network

Background Few data are available on the virological and clinical outcomes of advanced liver disease patients retreated after first-line DAA failure. Aim To evaluate DAA failure incidence and the retreatment clinical impact in patients treated in the advanced liver disease stage. Methods Data on HCV genotype, liver disease severity, and first and second line DAA regimens were ...

Sinking towards destiny: High throughput measurement of phytoplankton sinking rates through time-resolved fluorescence plate spectroscopy

Diatoms are marine primary producers that sink in part due to the density of their silica frustules. Sinking of these phytoplankters is crucial for both the biological pump that sequesters carbon to the deep ocean and for the life strategy of the organism. Sinking rates have been previously measured through settling columns, or with fluorimeters or video microscopy arranged ...

Usefulness of axonal tract-dependent OCT macular sectors for evaluating structural change in normal-tension glaucoma

Purpose To identify sectors of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular map that could be used to effectively assess structural progression in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods This study examined 117 eyes of 117 NTG patients to establish axonal tract-dependent macular sectors, and also examined a separate group of 122 eyes of 81 NTG patients to evaluate ...

Automatic crack detection method for loaded coal in vibration failure process

In the coal mining process, the destabilization of loaded coal mass is a prerequisite for coal and rock dynamic disaster, and surface cracks of the coal and rock mass are important indicators, reflecting the current state of the coal body. The detection of surface cracks in the coal body plays an important role in coal mine safety monitoring. In this paper, a method for detecting ...

In roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the damage-associated molecular pattern AtPep1 is a stronger elicitor of immune signalling than flg22 or the chitin heptamer

Plants interpret their immediate environment through perception of small molecules. Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) such as flagellin and chitin are likely to be more abundant in the rhizosphere than plant-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). We investigated how the Arabidopsis thaliana root interprets MAMPs and DAMPs as danger signals. We monitored ...

Inflorescence photosynthetic contribution to fitness releases Arabidopsis thaliana plants from trade-off constraints on early flowering

Leaves are thought to be the primary carbon source for reproduction in plants, so a positive relationship between vegetative size and reproductive output is expected, establishing a trade-off between time to reproduction and reproductive output. A common response to higher temperatures due to climate changes is the induction of earlier transition into reproduction. Thus, in annual ...

Breast cancer cell-derived fibroblast growth factors enhance osteoclast activity and contribute to the formation of metastatic lesions

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) have been implicated in promoting breast cancer growth and progression. While the autocrine effects of FGFR activation in tumor cells have been extensively studied, little is known about the effects of tumor cell-derived FGFs on cells in the microenvironment. Because FGF signaling has been implicated in the regulation of ...

An L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar study on the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault zone between 2007 and 2011: Evidence for along strike segmentation and creep in a shallow fault patch

We utilize L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in this study to retrieve a ground velocity map for the near field of the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault (NAF) zone. The segmentation and creep distribution of this section, which last ruptured in 1912 to generate a moment magnitude (Mw)7.3 earthquake, remains incompletely understood. Because InSAR ...

Individual differences in eye blink rate predict both transient and tonic pupil responses during reversal learning

The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil ...

Application of single step genomic BLUP under different uncertain paternity scenarios using simulated data

The objective of this study was to investigate the application of BLUP and single step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) models in different scenarios of paternity uncertainty with different strategies of scaling the G matrix to match the A22 matrix, using simulated data for beef cattle. Genotypes, pedigree, and phenotypes for age at first calving (AFC) and weight at 550 days (W550) were ...

Time trends in management of HIV-positive pregnant women in Northern Tanzania: A registry-based study

Objective To examine time trends in antenatal factors and delivery characteristics in Northern Tanzania, and relate these to national guidelines for HIV in pregnancy. Design Registry-based study. Setting Northern Tanzania, 2000–2014. Population or sample Deliveries (n = 33 346). Methods HIV-positive women were compared with HIV-negative women during four periods spanning changing ...

Identification and characterization of two linear epitope motifs in hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for hepatitis E, which represents a global public health problem. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are reported to be zoonotic, and animals are monitored for HEV infection in the interests of public hygiene and food safety. The development of novel diagnostic methods and vaccines for HEV in humans is thus important topics of research. Opening reading ...

Universal detection of phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. by TaqMan singleplex and multiplex real-time PCR with dual priming oligonucleotides

Phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. are bacteria that cause many economically important plant diseases worldwide. TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays have been utilized to universally detect phytoplasmas or Xylella fastidiosa. To develop a superior universal qPCR method, we used a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) with two annealing sites as ...