THE ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM, PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL - BEING, EMOTIONAL SELF - EFFICACY, AND AFFECT BALANCE ON HAPPINESS: A PATH MODEL
European Scientific Journal July 2013 edition vol.9
THE ROLE OF SELF-ESTEEM, PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL - BEING, EMOTIONAL SELF - EFFICACY, AND AFFECT BALANCE ON HAPPINESS: A PATH MODEL
Tayfun Dogan 0
0 Research Fellow, The University of Kansas, Department of Psychology , Lawrence, Kansas, USA Tark Totan , PhD Assistant Professor, Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Education, Department of Guidance and Counselling , Aydn, TURKEY Fatma Sapmaz , PhD Assistant Professor, Sakarya University, Faculty of Education, Department of Guidance and Counselling , Sakarya, TURKEY
The objective of this study is to examine the effects of self-esteem, psychological well-being, emotional self-efficacy and affect balance variables on happiness. The participants of the study are 340 (female n= 213; male n= 109) university students from Turkey. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale, Flourishing Scale, Emotional Self-efficacy Scale, and Positive-Negative Events Scale were used as data acquisition tools in the study. The relationships between the variables were examined via path analysis. According to the analysis it was determined that there are positive and significant relationship between psychological well-being, emotional self-efficacy and affect balance; and that psychological well-being and affect balance have positive effects on self-esteem and happiness, emotional self-efficacy has a positive effect on self-esteem and that self-esteem has a positive effect on happiness (2= 1.84, df= 1, 2/df= 1.8, GFI= .99, CFI= .99, NFI= .99, RFI= .95, IFI= .99, TLI= .98, RMSEA= .05). In addition, it was concluded that 46% of the total variance regarding self-esteem is explained by psychological well-being, emotional self-efficacy and affect balance. It was also concluded that psychological well-being, emotional self-efficacy, affect balance and selfesteem explain 51% of the total variance regarding happiness.
Happiness is defined as the cognitive and emotional evaluation of life
(Diener, 1984). The evaluations and judgments of individuals regarding
various areas of life (marriage, health, professional life etc.) signify the
cognitive aspect of happiness. Whereas the frequency of positive or negative
emotions comprise the emotional aspect of happiness. Accordingly, those
who experience positive emotions more frequently in comparison with
negative emotions are considered to be individuals who have a high level of
life satisfaction (Myers & Diener 1995). Many studies have been conducted
to determine what the psychological, biological, and social elements that
affect happiness are (Lyubomirsky, 2001). Accordingly, findings have been
obtained which show that genetic factors are the most important predictors of
happiness. The studies carried out have put forth that genetic factors have a
40%-50% effect on happiness (Lykken & Tellegen, 1996). Whereas it has
been determined that life conditions and demographic factors (age, gender,
education level, marital status etc.) have a 10% effect on happiness. It has
also been concluded that purposeful activities (positive thinking, altruism,
coping with stress etc.) have a 40% effect on happiness (Lyubomirsky, 2001;
Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005). Happiness has many other
benefits for the life of an individual besides giving happiness, positive
emotions, welfare and peace. Research results indicate that happiness
strengthens the immune system of individuals along with their energy and
creativity while providing that they are preferred more in their social
relations, increase efficiency at the workplace and provide a longer life
(Lyubomirsky, King, & Diener, 2005).
The variables of self-esteem, psychological well-being, emotional
self-efficacy and affect balance are also evaluated within the study areas of
positive psychology similar to happiness. There are many studies that
examine the relationships between happiness and self-esteem which is one of
the psychological signifiers of happiness. These studies have put forth that
self-esteem is an important precursor of happiness and that it has a positive
relationship with happiness (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998; Diener & Diener,
1995; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 2006). Psychological well-being is another
describing important aspects of human functioning ranging from positive
relationships, to feelings of competence, to having meaning and purpose in
life (Diener et. al., 2010). Whereas the concept of emotional self-efficacy is
related to the effective use of emotions by an individual. Emotional
selfefficacy is a multidimensional concept and is composed of emotion
regulation, understanding the emotions of oneself and others, perception of
emotions and use of emotions to support thoughts dimensions (Kirk, Schutte,
& Hine, 2008). Another variable of the study is affect balance. Positive
affect is defined as enjoying many emotions and moods and negative balance
is defined as enjoying less emotions and moods whereas affect balance can
be defined as the balance between enjoying and not enjoying the various
positive and negative emotions (Diener, 2000; Diener et. al., 2010). The
increase of affect balance signifies that the individual experiences negative
emotions less and positive emotions more (Diener et. al., 2010). In the light
of this inference, affect balance can be thought of as the skill for balancing
emotions arising due to negative and positive experiences. Whereas
psychological well-being, another exogenous variable of the study, contains
the cognitive and affective evaluations of an individual and signifies that
he/she is satisfied of the emotions that he/she has less negative emotions and
is highly satisfied of life (Diener, Lucas, & Oishi, 2002). Hence, it is
anticipated that affect balance and psychological well-being have direct
effects on happiness.
When the hypothesis model of the study is examined, it is assumed
that there will be positive relationships between psychological well-being,
emotional self-efficacy and affect balance and that these three variables will
have a positive effect on self-esteem and that in addition, psychological
wellbeing, affect balance and self-esteem will have positive effects on happiness.
Another assumption is that emotional self-efficacy will not have a direct
effect on happiness, however it will have an indirect effect on happiness by
way of self-esteem. Whereas in the hypothesis model psychological
wellbeing, emotional self-efficacy and affect balance are exogenous variables,
self-esteem and happiness are endogenous variables.
The participants of the study are 340 university students currently
continuing their educations at the Dokuz Eyll University Buca Faculty of
Education in Izmir during the 2011-2012 academic year. Of the participants,
67.9% are female (n= 213), 32.1% are male (n= 109) university students
whereas 17.2% are students of pre-school teaching (n= 58), 13.7% are
students of Turkish teaching (n= 46), 12.9% are students of elementary
school mathematics teaching (n= 44), 11.2 are of science teaching (n= 73)
whereas 23.5% are guidance and psychological guidance (n= 80) students.
The average age of the participants has been determined as 20 years 6
Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form (OHQ-SF)
The scale was developed by Hills & Argyle (2002). The scale is
composed of 8 items and a correlation of .93 has been determined with its 29
item original. The Turkish adaptation of OHQ-SF has been made by Doan
and tok (2011). Accordingly, as a result of confirmatory factor analysis, a
single factor structure with 7 items with an eigenvalue of 2.782 has been
obtained that explains 9.74% of the total variance. The single factor structure
of OHQ-SF has been examined using confirmatory factor analysis and the
goodness of fit indexes have been determined to be (2/df= 2.77, AGFI= .93,
GFI= .97, CFI= .95, NFI= .92, IFI= .95, RMSEA= .074). The relationships
between OHQ-SF and Life Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, &
Griffin, 1985), Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1985) and Zung
Depression Scale (Zung, 1965) have been examined and correlations of .61,
.51 and -.48 have been determined respectively. The internal consistency
coefficient of OHQ-SF has been determined as .74, whereas the test-re-test
reliability coefficient has been determined as .85.
Self-Esteem Scale (Self-Liking/Self-Competence Scale-SLSC)
SLSC is a 16 self-report scale developed by Tafarodi and Swan
(2001). The scale measures self-esteem with two dimensions namely
selfliking and self-competence. Tafarodi and Swan (2001) have determined the
internal consistency of the scale for the self-competence sub-dimension as
.83 for females and for males .82 and for self-liking sub-dimension as .90 for
both males and females. Whereas the test-re-test reliability coefficient was
reported as .78 for the self-competence sub-dimension and as .75 for the
selfliking sub-dimension. The Turkish adaptation of SLSC has been made by
Doan (2011). Accordingly, the internal consistency coefficients for the
subdimensions of self-liking and self-competence have been determined to be
.83 and .74. The two factor structure of the scale has been examined via
confirmatory factor analysis and the goodness of fit indexes have been
determined as AGFI= .91, GFI= .94, CFI= .97, NFI= .95 and RMSEA= .49.
Correlations of .75 and .69 have been obtained between self-liking and
selfcompetence and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale within the scope of
criterion related validity.
Psychological Well-being Scale (PWBS)
The scale is an 8 item Likert type (1- I totally agree, 7- I totally
disagree) measurement tool with seven degrees developed by Diener et al.
(2010) in order to evaluate psychological well-being or flourishing. The
Turkish adaptation of the scale has been done by Telef (2011a). The
researcher has determined as a result of descriptive factor analysis that the
single dimensional structure explains 41.94% of the variance. As a result of
confirmatory factor analysis, the researcher has also reported that the single
dimensional structure is confirmed in Turkish language as well (RMSEA=
.08, SRMR= .04, GFI= .96, NFI= .94, RFI= .92, CFI= .95, IFI= .95). The
internal consistency and the test-re-test coefficient have been determined as
.80 and .86 respectively.
Emotional Self-efficacy Scale (ESES)
The five degree Likert type scale that has been developed by Kirk,
Shutte, & Hine (2008) and adapted into Turkish by Totan, kiz, & Karaca
(2010) contains 32 items. Even though during the Turkish adaptation study
the four factor structure of the scale has been confirmed, the single
dimensional structure of the scale has been used in this study Kirk, Shutte, &
Hine (2008) have reported the internal consistency coefficient of the single
dimensional structure of the scale as .96 and the test-re-test coefficient as
.85. During the Turkish adaptation study, Totan, kiz, & Karaca (2010) have
determined that the scale preserves its single dimensional structure in
Turkish (2= 1508.96, df= 462, 2/df= 3.27, RMSEA= .071, NFI= .92, IFI=
.94, RFI= .91, RMR= .073, GFI= .88) and have calculated the internal
consistency coefficient and the test-re-test coefficient of the scale as .93 and
Positive-Negative Events Scale (PNES)
The scale developed by Diener et. al. (2009-2010) is a Likert type
five degree (1- Never, 5 Always) scale composed of twelve items. Telef
(2011b), who has made the Turkish adaptation of the scale has determined
that there are significant relationships of .95 for positive experiences and .90
for negative experiences between the Turkish and English forms. As a result
of the descriptive factor analysis, the researcher has determined that positive
experiences explain 33.31% of the total variance whereas negative
experiences explain 26.70%. The researcher has also determined as a result
of confirmatory factor analysis that the scale is valid in Turkish as well
(RMSEA= .07, SRMR=.04, GFI= .93, NFI= .96, RFI= .95, CFI= .97, IFI=
.97). The internal consistency coefficient of the scale for positive experiences
Variables 1 2 3 4 Croanlfbaach Mean s.d.
As a result of the correlation analyses, it was determined that there
are positive and significant relationships between all the variables in the
model. According to the results, happiness has been positively and
significantly related with psychological well-being (r2= .35), emotional
selfefficacy (r2= .17), affect balance (r2= .25) and self-esteem (r2= .36). In
addition, positive and significant relationships have been calculated between
psychological well-being and emotional self-efficacy (r2= .27), affect
balance (r2= .03) and self-esteem (r2= .24) whereas positive and significant
relationships have been calculated between affect balance and self-esteem
(r2= .09). Internal consistency coefficients of the variables were determined
to be high and between .75 - .91. When the normality assumption was
examined using Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses, it was determined that
normality was obtained for psychological well-being (Z= 1.094, p= .182),
emotional self-efficacy (Z= .811, p= .526), affect balance (Z= 1.345, p=
.054), self-esteem (Z= .523, p= .948) and happiness (Z= 1.028, p= .242). The
significant relationships between variables and the high levels of internal
consistency coefficients were accepted to be signifiers of sufficiency for path
analysis and thus path analysis was carried out.
As a result of the path analysis for the hypothesis model, it was
determined that there are significant and positive relationships between
psychological well-being, emotional self-efficacy and affect balance and that
psychological well-being and affect balance have positive effects on
selfesteem and happiness, emotional self-efficacy has positive effects on
selfesteem and that self-esteem has positive effects on happiness (2= 1.844, df=
1, 2/df= 1.8, GFI= .99, CFI= .99, NFI= .99, RFI= .95, IFI= .99, TLI= .98,
RMSEA= .05). The standardized regression coefficients are about .50 of the
coefficient between psychological well-being and self-esteem, .22 of the
coefficient between emotional self-efficacy and self-esteem, .10 of the
coefficient between affect balance and self-esteem, .27 of the coefficient
between psychological well-being and happiness, .31 of the coefficient
between affect balance and happiness and .33 of the coefficient between
selfIt was concluded as a result of path analysis that the paths between
endogenous and exogenous variables are significant. According to the
results, the linear paths between emotional self-efficacy and self-esteem,
affect balance and self-esteem, psychological well-being and self-esteem,
self-esteem and happiness, psychological well-being and happiness, affect
balance and happiness are positively significant. The relationships between
psychological well-being and emotional self-efficacy, affect balance and
emotional self-efficacy and psychological well-being and affect balance are
positively significant. It was understood that the modification suggestions in
the path analysis output do not have a high level of contribution to the
adaptation of the model. As a result of these results and the goodness of fit
results, it was concluded that the hypothesis model has been confirmed
without any requirement for further revisions.
The study has been structured on the path analysis of the direct and
indirect effects of the concepts of self-esteem, psychological well-being,
affect balance and emotional self-efficacy on happiness. As a result of the
analyses, it was determined that there are positive and significant
relationships between self-esteem, psychological well-being, affect balance,
emotional self-efficacy and happiness. As a result of the path analysis, it was
determined that the exogenous variables of psychological well-being and
affect balance have positive effects on happiness. Whereas it was determined
that emotional self-efficacy which has a direct effect on self-esteem has an
indirect effect on happiness. The path analysis results have put forth that the
hypothesis model is acceptable without any need for modification. It was
concluded that the variables relevant to the model explain about 51% of the
total variance regarding happiness.
Even though in literature there are studies regarding the relationships
between the research variables of self-esteem, psychological well-being,
affect balance and emotional self-efficacy with psychological well-being
(DeNeve & Cooper, 1998; Diener & Diener, 1995; Lyubomirsky & Lepper,
2006; Totan, Doan, & Sapmaz, 2013), there is no study that handles all
these variables together. Hence it is thought that this study will make a
contribution to the literature. In this study, significant relationships have
been determined between self-esteem and happiness. Studies that examine
the relationships between self-esteem, which can be defined as ones
selfsatisfaction (Rosenberg, 1965) with happiness, positive and significant
relationships between the two variables have been put forth (Furnham &
Cheng, 2000; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 2006). In this study it was concluded
that emotional self-efficacy has an indirect effect on happiness via
selfesteem. The frequency of positive and negative experiences comprise one of
the fundamental dimensions of happiness (Diener, 1984). When the research
findings are handled from this perspective, it can be evaluated that the
positive effect of high emotion using skills on self-esteem and thus indirectly
on happiness is significant. The theory of psychological well-being is one
which emphasizes the necessity of the use of the potential of an individual to
ensure self-acceptance and continue the relationships with others as well as a
meaningful life (Ryff, 1989). Whereas subjective well-being (happiness) is
handled as a hedonic look at well-being, psychological well-being is handled
as an eudaimonik perspective (Ryan & Deci, 2001). The results obtained in
this study have put forth that psychological well-being has significant effects
on the subjective well-being of an individual. Lastly, direct and indirect
significant relationships have been determined between affect balance and
happiness. Individuals live through many positive and negative experiences
in daily life. It can be stated that the existence of the ability to balance the
emotions that arise due to these events and experiences has a positive effect
In conclusion, hypothesis model based on theoretical content was
verified statistically. Path analysis has shown direct and indirect effects of
psychological well-being and affects balance on happiness. Whereas it has
been understood that emotional self-efficacy has indirect effects on
happiness via self-esteem. The effects of terminal and desired variables on
happiness have been examined for the psychological health of the individual.
The examination of the hypothesis model for different age groups and
communities including various variables that are undesired in social
relationships and daily lives will contribute to the determination of the
hidden variables that effect happiness thus helping to obtain data which can
be used by mental health psychological counseling.
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