Polar Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/300

List of Papers (Total 220)

The reproductive ecology of the Antarctic bivalve <Emphasis Type=

The accepted paradigm for reproduction in Antarctic marine species is one where oogenesis takes 18 months to 2 years, and a bimodal egg-size distribution where two cohorts of eggs are present in female gonads throughout the year. These slow gametogenic traits are driven by low temperature and/or the restriction of resource availability because of extreme seasonality in the marine ...

Spatial distribution in Norwegian lemming <Emphasis Type=

Competition between individuals of the same or different species affects spatial distribution of organisms at any given time. Consequently, a species geographical distribution is related to population dynamics through density-dependent processes. Small Arctic rodents are important prey species in many Arctic ecosystems. They commonly show large cyclic fluctuations in abundance ...

Energetic changes throughout early ontogeny of the brooding Antarctic sea star <Emphasis Type=

An unusually high proportion of Antarctic echinoderms brood their young. Protection, reproductive constraints, low temperatures and limited food supply are all suggested motives for this reproductive pattern. This study looks at the reproductive energetics of the Antarctic asteroid Rhopiella hirsuta, and to establish the dynamics of feeding and elemental composition throughout its ...

Seabed images versus corer sampling: a comparison of two quantitative approaches for the analysis of marine benthic communities in the southern Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean)

Corer sampling and seabed imaging are two quantitative approaches used to investigate benthic fauna. Despite the complementary nature of these methods, very few studies have been done using both in parallel. Here, we compare benthic composition and abundance data derived from the quantitative faunistic analysis of both multibox corer samples (MBC) and seabed images (SBI) taken ...

Longitudinal distribution of macroinvertebrates in snowmelt streams in northeast Greenland: understanding biophysical controls

In a changing climate, Arctic streams are expected to show more influence from snowmelt, rainfall and groundwater, and less domination from glacial meltwater sources. Snowmelt streams are characteristic features of Arctic ecosystems, yet our current understanding of longitudinal patterns in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in these systems is limited when compared to ...

Tardigrades from Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 nests on the Argentine Islands (maritime Antarctic)

Tardigrada in Antarctic regions are poorly known. The aim of this study was to examine for tardigrades the nests material of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823) in maritime Antarctic and discuss the possible ways of migration and dispersion of tardigrades by birds. We also discuss the influence of bird’s guano on the communities of microscopic invertebrates (mainly ...

Resistance of Arctic phytoplankton to ocean acidification and enhanced irradiance

The Arctic Ocean is a region particularly prone to ongoing ocean acidification (OA) and climate-driven changes. The influence of these changes on Arctic phytoplankton assemblages, however, remains poorly understood. In order to understand how OA and enhanced irradiances (e.g., resulting from sea–ice retreat) will alter the species composition, primary production, and eco-physiology ...

Sipunculan fauna in the Pacific Arctic region: a significant component of benthic infaunal communities

The Sipuncula show low species diversity in the Arctic Ocean, but they often occur in very high numbers and biomass, and can dominate shelf benthic communities. We describe here the patterns of sipunculan diversity, abundance, biomass, and species distribution in the Pacific Arctic, and the relation of those patterns to controlling environmental factors. Five species (including two ...

Species pool structure explains patterns of Antarctic rock-encrusting organism recruitment

Understanding the population dynamics of benthic communities is impossible without understanding the processes related to their initial development, including recruitment. In polar areas, encrusting organisms, such as bryozoans, polychaetes, sponges and ascidians, are amongst some of the most species-rich and abundant groups of macrofaunal organisms, yet knowledge about their ...

Decreased cryogenic disturbance: one of the potential mechanisms behind the vegetation change in the Arctic

During the last few decades, the Arctic has experienced large-scale vegetation changes. Understanding the mechanisms behind this vegetation change is crucial for our ability to predict future changes. This study tested the hypothesis that decreased cryogenic disturbances cause vegetation change in patterned ground study fields (non-sorted circles) in Abisko, Sweden during the last ...

Biology of the king crab Paralomis birsteini on the continental slope off the western Antarctic Peninsula

Predatory king crabs (Lithodidae) structure benthic communities in their native habitats and cause shifts in the composition of benthic assemblages when introduced to new environments. Cold temperatures have apparently excluded skeleton-breaking predators from the continental shelf around Antarctica for millions of years, but recent increases in sea temperatures off the western ...

Integrative redescription of a common Arctic water bear Pilatobius recamieri (Richters, 1911)

Tardigrada are a group of microscopic metazoans that inhabit a variety of ecosystems throughout the world, including polar regions, where they are a constant element of microfauna with densities exceeding hundreds of individuals per gram of dry plant material. However, despite a long history of research and their ubiquity in tundra ecosystems, the majority of tardigrade species ...

Low abundance and high species richness: the structure of the soft-bottom isopod fauna of a West Antarctic glacial fjord

Isopods belong to the most speciose groups of the Antarctic benthic fauna, although the knowledge on their diversity and small-scale distribution patterns is still limited. Here we analyze the diversity of the isopod fauna in the Admiralty Bay, a glacial fjord on the King George Island. The basin is located in the region of the Antarctic Peninsula, the fastest warming area of the ...

Zooplankton excretion metabolites stimulate Southern Ocean phytoplankton growth

Warming over Antarctica is leading to changes in the zooplankton communities inhabiting the Southern Ocean. It has been observed that zooplankton not only regulates phytoplankton through grazing, but also through the recycling of nutrients that are essential for phytoplankton growth. In this way, the effects of warming on zooplankton populations will change the amount or proportion ...

The potential role of Antarctic krill faecal pellets in efficient carbon export at the marginal ice zone of the South Orkney Islands in spring

Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) play a central role in the food web of the Southern Ocean, forming a link between primary production and large predators. Krill produce large, faecal pellets (FP) which can form a large component of mesopelagic particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes. However, the patchy distribution of krill swarms, highly variable pellet composition, and ...

Assemblages and habitat preferences of soft bottom Antarctic Amphipoda: Admiralty Bay case study

Amphipoda belong to enormously diverse benthic invertebrate groups in the Southern Ocean, playing a very important role in the Antarctic communities. However, in the majority of ecological studies they are identified only to the order level. Rare ecological studies, where amphipods were identified to the species level, concern mainly shallow sublittoral. There is also poor ...

Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) feeding over deep water in the high Arctic

The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a highly adaptive demersal, boreal species with a broad distribution on the continental shelves on both sides of the North Atlantic. However, whether the species also uses adjoining deeper water basins as feeding grounds or migration corridors remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to describe the vertical and horizontal distributions of Atlantic ...

Diversity and abundance of microbial eukaryotes in stream sediments from Svalbard

Microbial eukaryotes are increasingly being recognised for their role in global biogeochemical cycles, yet very few studies have focussed on their distribution in high-latitude stream sediments, an important habitat which influences stream water nutrient chemistry. In this study, we present the first comparison of microbial eukaryotes from two different polar habitats by ...

Distribution and population characteristics of the soil mites Diapterobates notatus and Svalbardia paludicola (Acari: Oribatida: Ceratozetidae) in High Arctic Svalbard (Norway)

The Oribatida of High Arctic Svalbard are faunistically relatively well known, but the distribution, density, stage structure and other population parameters of most species are unknown. Here we focus on two ceratozetid species, Diapterobates notatus (Thorell, 1871) and Svalbardia paludicola Thor, 1930, and investigate the summer density, stage and sex structure, proportion of ...

Challenges and strategies when mapping local ecological knowledge in the Canadian Arctic: the importance of defining the geographic limits of participants’ common areas of observations

Traditional and local ecological knowledge (TEK/LEK) are important sources of information for wildlife conservation. However, there are often limitations and biases in the TEK/LEK methods used. In this study, we examined and implemented strategies to address the limitations and biases we identified while analyzing the mapped observations collected from 27 interviews as part of a ...