Journal of Immunology Research

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/

List of Papers (Total 3,647)

pDC Activation by TLR7/8 Ligand CL097 Compared to TLR7 Ligand IMQ or TLR9 Ligand CpG

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) express high levels of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7 and TLR9. In response to TLR7 and TLR9 ligands, pDCs are primary producers of type I interferons. Our previous study demonstrated that pDCs activated by the TLR7 ligand imiquimod (IMQ) and the TLR9 ligand CpG A can kill breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo...

Functions of Macrophages in the Maintenance of Intestinal Homeostasis

Intestinal macrophages constitute the largest pool of macrophages in the body and have emerged as crucial sentinels for pathogen recognition and elimination. The source and development of intestinal macrophages, as well as their distinct properties have been well documented. Intestinal macrophages exert their functions in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by shaping host...

Different Faces for Different Places: Heterogeneity of Neutrophil Phenotype and Function

As the most abundant leukocytes in the circulation, neutrophils are committed to innate and adaptive immune effector function to protect the human body. They are capable of killing intruding microbes through various ways including phagocytosis, release of granules, and formation of extracellular traps. Recent research has revealed that neutrophils are heterogeneous in phenotype...

STAT4, TRAF3IP2, IL10, and HCP5 Polymorphisms in Sjögren’s Syndrome: Association with Disease Susceptibility and Clinical Aspects

Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by autoantibody production, sicca syndrome, and periepithelial lymphocytic lesions in target tissues. A predisposing genetic background is likely, and, to date, several polymorphisms in non-HLA genes have been explored with interesting results. We investigated the association between the STAT4, TRAF3IP2, HCP5...

KIR/HLA Gene Profile Implication in Systemic Sclerosis Patients from Mexico

Introduction. Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, and multisystemic disease characterized by the presence of autoantibodies and fibrosis. The pathogenesis involves the interaction between immune system cells such as macrophages, NK cells, T cells, and B cells. Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) are expressed in NK cells and some T cell subsets...

The Crosstalk between Fat Homeostasis and Liver Regional Immunity in NAFLD

The liver is well known as the center of glucose and lipid metabolism in the human body. It also functions as an immune organ. Previous studies have suggested that liver nonparenchymal cells are crucial in the progression of NAFLD. In recent years, NAFLD’s threat to human health has been becoming a global issue. And by far, there is no effective treatment for NAFLD. Liver...

M1-Polarized Macrophages Promote Self-Renewing Phenotype of Hepatic Progenitor Cells with Jagged1-Notch Signalling Involved: Relevance in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

The immunologic interaction between parenchyma cells and encircling inflammatory cells is thought to be the most important mechanism of biliary damage and repair in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Monocytes/macrophages as master regulators of hepatic inflammation have been demonstrated to contribute to PSC pathogenesis. Macrophages coordinate with liver regeneration, and...

M1-Polarized Macrophages Promote Self-Renewing Phenotype of Hepatic Progenitor Cells with Jagged1-Notch Signalling Involved: Relevance in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

The immunologic interaction between parenchyma cells and encircling inflammatory cells is thought to be the most important mechanism of biliary damage and repair in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Monocytes/macrophages as master regulators of hepatic inflammation have been demonstrated to contribute to PSC pathogenesis. Macrophages coordinate with liver regeneration, and...

Zinc in Keratinocytes and Langerhans Cells: Relevance to the Epidermal Homeostasis

In the skin, the epidermis is continuously exposed to various kinds of external substances and stimuli. Therefore, epidermal barriers are crucial for providing protection, safeguarding health, and regulating water balance by maintaining skin homeostasis. Disruption of the epidermal barrier allows external substances and stimuli to invade or stimulate the epidermal cells, leading...

Variation in Expression of Inflammation-Related Signaling Molecules with Profibrotic and Antifibrotic Effects in Cutaneous and Oral Mucosa Scars

Wound healing is a complex biologic process evolving in three phases: inflammation, proliferation, and tissue remodeling controlled by numerous growth factors and cytokines. Oral mucosa wounds heal with significantly less important scars with less numerous macrophages and mast cells and more numerous myofibroblasts than cutaneous counterparts. We analyzed 32 cutaneous and 32 oral...

The Central Role of Inflammation Associated with Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatments

An important function of the immune system is its ability to differentiate between healthy cells in the organism and “foreign” cells, allowing the latest to be attacked and the first ones to be conserved. The most important molecules in this process are considered to be checkpoint inhibitors. This review is focused on the association between cancer and inflammation, underlying...

The Central Role of Inflammation Associated with Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatments

An important function of the immune system is its ability to differentiate between healthy cells in the organism and “foreign” cells, allowing the latest to be attacked and the first ones to be conserved. The most important molecules in this process are considered to be checkpoint inhibitors. This review is focused on the association between cancer and inflammation, underlying...

Murine DX5

Introduction. It has been previously shown that immunoregulatory DX5

Biological Properties and the Role of IL-25 in Disease Pathogenesis

The interleukin- (IL-) 17 superfamily, a T cell-derived cytokine, consists of 6 ligands (IL-17A–IL-17F) and 5 receptors (IL-17RA–IL-17RE). IL-17A, a prototype member of this family, is involved in the pathogenesis of allergies, autoimmune diseases, allograft transplantations, and malignancies. By contrast, IL-17B is reported to be closely related to certain diseases, particularly...

Differential Effects of IL-2 and IL-6 on the Development of Three Distinct Precursor T-Cell Populations in the Thymus

Three distinct T-cell precursors: bone marrow cells that express low levels of the Thy-1 antigen but no lineage markers (Thy-1-lo/BM); CD4-, CD8-, and CD3- thymocytes that express low levels of the Thy-1 antigen (Thy-1-lo/Thym); and CD4-, CD8-, and CD3- thymocytes that express high levels of the Thy-1 antigen and the IL-2 R α chain (Thy-1

Expression of MHC Class II Antigens During Xenopus Development

Larval and adult forms of the amphibian Xenopus differ in their MHC class II .expression. In tadpoles, class II epitopes can be detected by monoclonal antibodies only on B cells, macrophages (whatever their location), spleen reticulum, thymus epithelium, and the pharyngobuccal cavity. In contrast, all adult T cells express class II on their surface. The transitions in class II...

Expression of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens on Adult T Cells in Xenopus is Metamorphosis- Dependent

Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens are expressed predominantly on B lymphocytes and macrophages of tadpoles of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, as is the pattern in lymphocyte populations of most mammals. However, unlike most mammals, young postmetamorphic frogs show expression of class II MHC antigens on a high proportion of thymocytes and...

Ontogenic Appearance of MHC Class I (B-F) Antigens During Chicken Embryogenesis

Expression of chicken MHC class (B-F) antigens during ontogeny was determined by binding of anticlass antibody and appearance of B-F transcripts by Northern blotting in chicken organs during embryogenesis until 2 weeks after hatching. MHC class transcripts first become detectable in day 6.5 of embryogenesis. B-F cell-surface expression first becomes detectable in hemopoietic...

Lack of Peripherally Induced Tolerance to Established Skin Allografts in Immunologically Reconstituted Scid Mice

The mechanism by which the antigen-specific immune system distinguishes between foreign antigens (toward which it mounts an immune response) and self-antigens (of which it is tolerant) is not completely understood. Studies using “superantigens“ and transgenic mice have allowed investigations into some of the mechanisms of clonal deletion, anergy, and peripheral tolerance. In the...

Response of Leucocyte Populations in the Ileal Peyer's Patch of Fetal Lambs Treated with Ferritin Per Os

A combination of immunohistochemical techniques, a panel of monoclonal antibodies, and computer-assisted morphometric analysis was used to examine the response of the ileal Peyerr's patch of fetal lambs 7 days after treatment with ferritin per os. Consistent with previous studies in fetal lambs that have reported the ileal Peyer's patch to be indifferent to antigen, the present...

The Neonatal Development of Intraepithelial and Lamina Propria Lymphocytes in the Murine Small Intestine

During early neonatal life, important changes occur in the gut. The intestine is challenged by both milk and a microbial flora. Later on, at weaning, the diet of mice changes from milk to pelleted food leading to changes in microbial contents. This period seems essential for a complete development of the mucosal immune system. We investigated the development of both...