Malaria Journal

http://www.malariajournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 4,950)

Small-scale field evaluation of the efficacy and residual effect of Fludora ® Fusion (mixture of clothianidin and deltamethrin) against susceptible and resistant Anopheles gambiae populations from Benin, West Africa

In recognition of the threat of insecticide resistance in vectors of malaria, the WHO Global Malaria Programme recommends the development of an appropriate and comprehensive response to insecticide resistance. In principle, good resistance management practice requires the application of multiple insecticides of different modes of action, for example, in rotations and mixtures...

Heterogeneous distribution of k13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum in Laos

The emergence and transnational spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) is a serious threat to malaria elimination in the region and could present a threat to malaria control in Africa. Recently, the Lao Government adopted the goal of malaria elimination by 2030, for which monitoring of artemisinin-resistant malaria within...

The effect of mobile phone text message reminders on health workers’ adherence to case management guidelines for malaria and other diseases in Malawi: lessons from qualitative data from a cluster-randomized trial

Mobile health (mHealth), which uses technology such as mobile phones to improve patient health and health care delivery, is increasingly being tested as an intervention to promote health worker (HW) performance. This study assessed the effect of short messaging services (SMS) reminders in a study setting. Following a trial of text-message reminders to HWs to improve case...

Diagnostic performance of salivary urea nitrogen dipstick to detect and monitor acute kidney disease in patients with malaria

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of malaria. In low resource settings, a lack of diagnostic tools and delayed treatment of malaria associated AKI lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary urea nitrogen (SUN) dipstick to detect and monitor kidney disease [KD = AKI or acute kidney...

Using the human blood index to investigate host biting plasticity: a systematic review and meta-regression of the three major African malaria vectors

The proportion of mosquito blood-meals that are of human origin, referred to as the ‘human blood index’ or HBI, is a key determinant of malaria transmission. A systematic review was conducted followed by meta-regression of the HBI for the major African malaria vectors. Evidence is presented for higher HBI among Anopheles gambiae (M/S forms and Anopheles coluzzii/An. gambiae sensu...

Has doxycycline, in combination with anti-malarial drugs, a role to play in intermittent preventive treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in pregnant women in Africa?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy is responsible for deleterious consequences for the mother and her child. The administration of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) at each antenatal care visit as early as 13 weeks of gestation until the time of delivery is a strategy that is...

Diagnostic capacity, and predictive values of rapid diagnostic tests for accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum in febrile children in Asante-Akim, Ghana

This study seeks to compare the performance of HRP2 (First Response) and pLDH/HRP2 (Combo) RDTs for falciparum malaria against microscopy and PCR in acutely ill febrile children at presentation and follow-up. This is an interventional study that recruited children < 5 years who reported to health facilities with a history of fever within the past 72 h or a documented axillary...

Mitochondrial gene sequence variants in children with severe malaria anaemia with or without lactic acidosis: a case control study

Evolutionary pressure by Plasmodium falciparum malaria is known to have favoured a large number of human gene adaptations, but there is surprisingly little investigation of the effect of malaria on human mitochondrial sequence variation. Plasmodium falciparum infection can cause severe malaria anaemia (SMA) with insufficient tissue oxygenation, lactic acidosis and death. Despite...

Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin resistance monitoring in Sabah, Malaysia: in vivo therapeutic efficacy and kelch13 molecular marker surveillance

Spreading Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin drug resistance threatens global malaria public health gains. Limited data exist to define the extent of P. falciparum artemisinin resistance southeast of the Greater Mekong region in Malaysia. A clinical efficacy study of oral artesunate (total target dose 12 mg/kg) daily for 3 days was conducted in patients with uncomplicated...

A discovery and development roadmap for new endectocidal transmission-blocking agents in malaria

Reaching the overall goal of eliminating malaria requires halting disease transmission. One approach to blocking transmission is to prevent passage of the parasite to a mosquito, by preventing formation or transmission of gametocytes. An alternative approach, pioneered in the veterinary field, is to use endectocides, which are molecules that render vertebrate blood meals toxic...

Genetic diversity and allele frequencies of Plasmodium falciparum msp1 and msp2 in parasite isolates from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

Malaria is still a serious public health problem on Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea), although the number of annual cases has been greatly reduced since 2004 through the Bioko Island Malaria Control Project (BIMCP). A better understanding of malaria parasite population diversity and transmission dynamics is critical for assessing the effectiveness of malaria control measures. The...

Evaluating the quality of routinely reported data on malaria commodity stocks in Guinea, 2014–2016

Ensuring malaria commodity availability at health facilities is a cornerstone of malaria control. Since 2013, the Guinea National Malaria Control Programme has been routinely collecting data on stock levels of key malaria commodities through a monthly routine malaria information system (RMIS). In parallel, biannual end-user verification (EUV) surveys have also assessed malaria...

Spontaneous splenic rupture in Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite typically found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, is the most common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Infections in humans result in a spectrum of disease, including fatal outcomes. Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare, but severe complication of malaria and has not been reported previously for knowlesi malaria. A 46-year...

Accuracy of One Step malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in detecting Plasmodium falciparum placental malaria infection in women living in Yaoundé, Cameroon

Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequestering in placental tissue release Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and histidine-rich protein-II (HRP-II). These proteins can be detected in peripheral blood using monoclonal antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Nevertheless, studies to evaluate the reliability of RDTs in detecting placental malaria compared with...

Malaria case investigation with reactive focal testing and treatment: operational feasibility and lessons learned from low and moderate transmission areas in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

When malaria transmission is very low, investigation of passively detected malaria cases and reactive focal testing and treatment (FTAT) in the case and neighbouring households can identify and contain the source and spread of infections. Case investigation with reactive FTAT for malaria was implemented in 10 villages in Amhara Region, Ethiopia during the 2014/2015 malaria...

Comparing the un-comparable: Olyset Plus and Olyset, different malaria impact

In a recent article in The Lancet, Protopopoff et al. stated that insecticide resistance must be tackled and concluded that adding the insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to a bed net with a pyrethroid as principal insecticide might be a part of the response. The study in Tanzania compares malaria prevalence between users of two different nets with the principal...

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Ethiopia: absence of common African and Mediterranean allelic variants in a nationwide study

Building on the declining trend of malaria in Ethiopia, the Federal Ministry of Health aims to eliminate malaria by 2030. As Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are co-endemic in Ethiopia, the use of primaquine is indicated for both transmission interruption and radical cure, respectively. However, the limited knowledge of the local prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate...

Detection of foci of residual malaria transmission through reactive case detection in Ethiopia

Sub-microscopic and asymptomatic infections could be bottlenecks to malaria elimination efforts in Ethiopia. This study determined the prevalence of malaria, and individual and household-level factors associated with Plasmodium infections obtained following detection of index cases in health facilities in Jimma Zone. Index malaria cases were passively detected and tracked in...

Exploring malaria vector diversity on the Amazon Frontier

Deforestation in the Amazon and the social vulnerability of its settler communities has been associated with increased malaria incidence. The feeding biology of the most important malaria vectors in the region, notably Nyssorhynchus darlingi, compounds efforts to control vectors and reduce transmission of what has become known as “Frontier Malaria”. Exploring Anophelinae mosquito...

Spatio-temporal analysis of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence to understand the past and chart the future of malaria control in Kenya

Spatial and temporal malaria risk maps are essential tools to monitor the impact of control, evaluate priority areas to reorient intervention approaches and investments in malaria endemic countries. Here, the analysis of 36 years data on Plasmodium falciparum prevalence is used to understand the past and chart a future for malaria control in Kenya by confidently highlighting...

Proteomic profiling of the plasma of Gambian children with cerebral malaria

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A number of pathological findings have been correlated with pediatric CM including sequestration, platelet accumulation, petechial haemorrhage and retinopathy. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to death in CM are not yet fully understood. A shotgun plasma proteomic study was...

Molecular identification of Plasmodium species in symptomatic children of Democratic Republic of Congo

Worldwide, the highest malaria mortality is due to Plasmodium falciparum infection. However, other species of Plasmodium (Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi) can also cause malaria. Therefore, accurate identification of malaria species is crucial for patient management and epidemiological surveillance. This study aimed to determine...

Analysis of clinical malaria disease patterns and trends in Vietnam 2009–2015

Viet Nam has made tremendous progress towards reducing mortality and morbidity associated with malaria in recent years. Despite the success in malaria control, there has been a recent increase in cases in some provinces. In order to understand the changing malaria dynamics in Viet Nam and measure progress towards elimination, the aim of this study was to describe and quantify...

The prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage and multiplicity of infection in children, pregnant women and adults in a low malaria transmission area in Southern Ghana

The gametocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum is considered an important target for disrupting malaria transmission. Indications are that various demographic groups, such as children and pregnant women may differ in risk of harbouring gametocytes, which may be crucial for targeted control. In this study, the relationship between the prevalence and multiplicity of P. falciparum...

Comparison of three diagnostic methods (microscopy, RDT, and PCR) for the detection of malaria parasites in representative samples from Equatorial Guinea

Malaria in Equatorial Guinea remains a major public health problem. The country is a holo-endemic area with a year-round transmission pattern. In 2016, the prevalence of malaria was 12.09% and malaria caused 15% of deaths among children under 5 years. In the Continental Region, 95.2% of malaria infections were Plasmodium falciparum, 9.5% Plasmodium vivax, and eight cases mixed...