Nutrition & Diabetes

http://www.nature.com/nutd

List of Papers (Total 208)

Body composition during early infancy and its relation with body composition at 4 years of age in Jimma, an Ethiopian prospective cohort study

Background/ObjectivesLow and high birth weight and rapid weight gain during infancy are associated with childhood obesity. Associations of birth and infancy body composition (BC) growth with childhood BC remain unknown in low-income countries. We aimed to investigate the associations of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth and its accretion during early infancy with FM...

Hypothalamic oxidative stress and inflammation, and peripheral glucose homeostasis in Sprague-Dawley rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal chocolate and soft drink

BackgroundPredisposition to obesity and type 2 diabetes can arise during foetal development and in early postnatal life caused by imbalances in maternal nutritional overload. We aimed to investigate the effects of maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink on hypothalamic anti-oxidative stress markers, inflammation and peripheral glucose homeostasis.MethodsPregnant...

Raspberry alleviates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1

OBJECTIVEThrough dynamic means, etiological factors, including chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have the potential to perpetuate metabolic incidences such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Abatement of such syndromes can be achieved by complex mechanisms initiated through bioactive compounds such as polyphenols derived from fruits. Using a whole-fruit approach, the...

Weight loss and mortality risk in patients with different adiposity at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal cohort study

BackgroundUndiagnosed comorbid diseases that independently lead to weight loss before type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis could explain the observed increased mortality risk in T2DM patients with normal weight.ObjectivesTo evaluate the impact of weight change patterns before the diagnosis of T2DM on the association between body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis and mortality...

Ultra-processed food consumption and adiposity trajectories in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents: ELANA study

Background/objectivesIn Brazil, the increase in obesity rates has been accompanied by increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF). The objective of this paper was to evaluate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) trajectories in adolescents over a 3-year follow-up according to the frequency of UPF consumption.Subjects/methodsData of three consecutive years...

Financial incentive strategies for maintenance of weight loss: results from an internet-based randomized controlled trial

Background/objectiveFinancial incentives can improve initial weight loss; we examined whether financial incentives can improve weight loss maintenance.Subjects/methodsParticipants aged 30–80 years who lost at least 5 kg during the first 4–6 months in a nationally available commercial weight loss program were recruited via the internet into a three-arm randomized trial of two...

Update on glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases: the roles in the development of insulin resistance

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo pathway of glycerolipid synthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate and long-chain acyl-CoA to lysophosphatidic acid. In mammals, four isoforms of GPATs have been identified based on subcellular localization, substrate preferences, and NEM sensitivity, and they have been...

Prenatal n-3 long-chain fatty acid status and offspring metabolic health in early and mid-childhood: results from Project Viva

Higher maternal and biomarker levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been associated with improved perinatal outcomes and may also influence offspring metabolic health. Past studies were not powered to examine metabolic outcomes and few have specifically targeted metabolically vulnerable populations. We examined the associations of prenatal n-3 LCPUFA...

Plant sterols lower LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in dyslipidemic individuals with or at risk of developing type 2 diabetes; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

BackgroundManaging cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, e.g., dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is critically important as CVD is the most common cause of death in T2DM patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of plant sterols (PS) on lowering both elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG).MethodsIn a double-blind...

Affinity kinetics of leptin-reactive immunoglobulins are associated with plasma leptin and markers of obesity and diabetes

Obese subjects display elevated plasma levels of leptin reflecting the phenomenon of leptin resistance. Here, we aimed to determine whether leptin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) are present in obese and type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and whether their plasma levels and affinity kinetics may correlate with obesity and diabetes markers. We show that leptin levels are increased in...

Phenotype and genotype predictors of BMI variability among European adults

Background/ObjectiveObesity is a complex and multifactorial disease resulting from the interactions among genetics, metabolic, behavioral, sociocultural and environmental factors. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to identify phenotype and genotype variables that could be relevant determinants of body mass index (BMI) variability.Subjects/MethodsIn the present study...

Maternal betaine supplementation affects fetal growth and lipid metabolism of high-fat fed mice in a temporal-specific manner

Background/objectivesMaternal obesity increases the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which results in fetal overgrowth and long-lasting metabolic dysfunctioning in the offspring. Previous studies show that maternal choline supplementation normalizes fetal growth and adiposity of progeny from obese mice. This study examines whether supplementation of betaine, a choline...

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in the EPIC-Italy cohort

Excessive calorie intake and physical inactivity are considered key determinants of the rapid worldwide increase in obesity prevalence, however the relationship between diet and weight gain is complex. We investigated associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in volunteers recruited to the Italian section of the...

Evaluation of a 12-week lifestyle education intervention with or without partial meal replacement in Thai adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: a randomised trial

Background/ObjectivesThere have been no studies examining the efficacy of meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and metabolic syndrome (MS) improvement in Southeast Asians. Thus, we undertook a 12-week randomised trial to evaluate the effect of a lifestyle education intervention alone (LEI) or with partial MR (LEI + MR) in obese Thai adults with MS.Subjects/MethodsA total of 110...

High orange juice consumption with or in-between three meals a day differently affects energy balance in healthy subjects

Sugar-containing beverages like orange juice can be a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes although the underlying mechanisms are less clear. We aimed to investigate if intake of orange juice with or in-between meals differently affects energy balance or metabolic risk. Twenty-six healthy adults (24.7 ± 3.2 y; BMI 23.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2) participated in a 4-week cross-over...

Dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes among Ghanaian migrants in Europe and their compatriots in Ghana: the RODAM study

Background/objectivesWe aimed to study the associations of dietary patterns (DPs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Ghanaian adults.Subjects/methodsIn the multi-centre, cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants) study (n = 4543), three overall DPs (“mixed”, “rice, pasta, meat and fish,” and “roots, tubers and plantain”) and two site-specific...

Human adipose tissue protein analyses using capillary western blot technology

A capillary western blot (Wes®) technology has recently been validated for analyses of cell culture lysate proteins, but whether it is reliable for human tissue proteins is unknown. We compared traditional western blotting to the Wes® capillary western method to quantitate the relative amount of human adipose tissue CD36, the ratio of phosphorylated Erk1/2 (pErk1/2) to total Erk1...

Real-life achievement of lipid-lowering treatment targets in the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente: systemic assessment of pharmacological and nutritional factors

Background/ObjectivesLowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) in type 2 diabetes mellitus is of paramount importance in preventing cardiovascular disease. However, treatment targets for LDLc are often not reached. We studied the prevalence of LDLc target achievement in a real-life population of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in secondary care, and investigated...

Geographical variation in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes among US adults

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes remain significant public health concerns. Targeting of prevention efforts by geographical location has been suggested by the Institute of Medicine to coincide with the presence of area-based risk. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a stronger risk factor than is obesity for the prediction of future CVD and diabetes, yet its...

Vegetarian diet, change in dietary patterns, and diabetes risk: a prospective study

Background/objectivesVegetarian diets are inversely associated with diabetes in Westerners but their impact on Asians—whose pathophysiology differ from Westerners—is unknown. We aim to investigate the association between a vegetarian diet, change in dietary patterns and diabetes risk in a Taiwanese Buddhist population.MethodsWe prospectively followed 2918 non-smoking, non-alcohol...

An audit of the dietary intake of Australian children with type 1 diabetes

To understand what children with type 1 diabetes in a representative tertiary hospital clinic are eating compared to their peers and explore dietary intake impact on HbA1c outcome. An open cross-sectional dietary audit of children and adolescents with diabetes aged 2–17 years attending the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne was conducted using an age-appropriate validated Food...

Differential effect of body mass index on the incidence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in two Asian populations

AimsTo examine the association of body mass index (BMI) with the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Asians.MethodsWe analysed data from 4101 adults (Malay, n = 1901 and Indian, n = 2200) who participated in the baseline (2004–2009) and 6-year follow-up (2011–2015) of two independent population-based studies with similar methodology in Singapore...