Nature Communications

http://www.nature.com/ncomms

List of Papers (Total 9,481)

Dynamics of pore formation during laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

Laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing is an emerging 3D printing technique for the fabrication of advanced metal components. Widespread adoption of it and similar additive technologies is hampered by poor understanding of laser-metal interactions under such extreme thermal regimes. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of pore formation and liquid-solid interface dynamics...

Regioselective radical α-borylation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds for direct synthesis of α-borylcarbonyl molecules

Organoboron compounds are highly valuable in synthetic chemistry. In particular, α-borylcarbonyl compounds have shown versatile synthetic applications, owing to fruitful chemistries of both the boryl and carbonyl moieties. However, the synthesis of these molecules still remains tedious and time-consuming. Here we report a straightforward and practical route to synthesize...

Crystal structure of the Lin28-interacting module of human terminal uridylyltransferase that regulates let-7 expression

Lin28-dependent oligo-uridylylation of precursor let-7 (pre-let-7) by terminal uridylyltransferase 4/7 (TUT4/7) represses let-7 expression by blocking Dicer processing, and regulates cell differentiation and proliferation. The interaction between the Lin28:pre-let-7 complex and the N-terminal Lin28-interacting module (LIM) of TUT4/7 is required for pre-let-7 oligo-uridylylation...

Ultrafast nematic-orbital excitation in FeSe

The electronic nematic phase is an unconventional state of matter that spontaneously breaks the rotational symmetry of electrons. In iron-pnictides/chalcogenides and cuprates, the nematic ordering and fluctuations have been suggested to have as-yet-unconfirmed roles in superconductivity. However, most studies have been conducted in thermal equilibrium, where the dynamical...

High-resolution specificity profiling and off-target prediction for site-specific DNA recombinases

The development of site-specific recombinases (SSRs) as genome editing agents is limited by the difficulty of altering their native DNA specificities. Here we describe Rec-seq, a method for revealing the DNA specificity determinants and potential off-target substrates of SSRs in a comprehensive and unbiased manner. We applied Rec-seq to characterize the DNA specificity...

Mendelian randomization analysis using mixture models for robust and efficient estimation of causal effects

Mendelian randomization (MR) has emerged as a major tool for the investigation of causal relationship among traits, utilizing results from large-scale genome-wide association studies. Bias due to horizontal pleiotropy, however, remains a major concern. We propose a novel approach for robust and efficient MR analysis using large number of genetic instruments, based on a novel...

Dramatic differences in carbon dioxide adsorption and initial steps of reduction between silver and copper

Converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into liquid fuels and synthesis gas is a world-wide priority. But there is no experimental information on the initial atomic level events for CO2 electroreduction on the metal catalysts to provide the basis for developing improved catalysts. Here we combine ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with quantum mechanics to examine the...

Palaeodemographic modelling supports a population bottleneck during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in Iberia

Demographic change lies at the core of debates on genetic inheritance and resilience to climate change of prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Here we analyze the radiocarbon record of Iberia to reconstruct long-term changes in population levels and test different models of demographic growth during the Last Glacial-Interglacial transition. Our best fitting demographic model is composed...

RNA G-quadruplex is resolved by repetitive and ATP-dependent mechanism of DHX36

DHX36 is a DEAH-box helicase that resolves parallel G-quadruplex structures formed in DNA and RNA. The recent co-crystal structure of DHX36 bound G4-DNA revealed an intimate contact, but did not address the role of ATP hydrolysis in G4 resolving activity. Here, we demonstrate that unlike on G4-DNA, DHX36 displays ATP-independent unfolding of G4-RNA followed by ATP-dependent...

A clinically translatable hyperspectral endoscopy (HySE) system for imaging the gastrointestinal tract

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) enables visualisation of morphological and biochemical information, which could improve disease diagnostic accuracy. Unfortunately, the wide range of image distortions that arise during flexible endoscopy in the clinic have made integration of HSI challenging. To address this challenge, we demonstrate a hyperspectral endoscope (HySE) that...

Promotion of growth factor signaling as a critical function of β-catenin during HCC progression

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. β-catenin is widely thought to be a major oncogene in HCC based on the frequency of mutations associated with aberrant Wnt signaling in HCC patients. Challenging this model, our data reveal that β-catenin nuclear accumulation is restricted to the late stage of the disease. Until then...

Binary tree-inspired digital dendrimer

Digital polymers with precisely ordered units acting as the coded 0- or 1-bit, are introduced as a promising option for molecular data storage. However, the pursuit of better performance in terms of high storage capacity and useful functions never stops. Herein, we propose a concept of an information-coded 2D digital dendrimer. The divergent growth via thiol-maleimide Michael...

AURKB as a target in non-small cell lung cancer with acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors harboring mutations in EGFR ultimately relapse to therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs). Here, we show that resistant cells without the p.T790M or other acquired mutations are sensitive to the Aurora B (AURKB) inhibitors barasertib and S49076. Phospho-histone H3 (pH3), a major product of AURKB, is increased in most...

Effect of molecular architecture on ring polymer dynamics in semidilute linear polymer solutions

Understanding the dynamics of ring polymers is a particularly challenging yet interesting problem in soft materials. Despite recent progress, a complete understanding of the nonequilibrium behavior of ring polymers has not yet been achieved. In this work, we directly observe the flow dynamics of DNA-based rings in semidilute linear polymer solutions using single molecule...

Conformational dynamics of the human serotonin transporter during substrate and drug binding

The serotonin transporter (SERT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, is responsible for termination of serotonergic signaling by re-uptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron. Its key role in synaptic transmission makes it a major drug target, e.g. for the treatment of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. Here, we apply hydrogen...

Accelerated nonlinear interactions in graded-index multimode fibers

Multimode optical fibers have recently reemerged as a viable platform for addressing a number of long-standing issues associated with information bandwidth requirements and power-handling capabilities. As shown in recent studies, the complex nature of such heavily multimoded systems can be effectively exploited to observe altogether novel physical effects arising from...

Multiplexed Cas9 targeting reveals genomic location effects and gRNA-based staggered breaks influencing mutation efficiency

Understanding the impact of guide RNA (gRNA) and genomic locus on CRISPR-Cas9 activity is crucial to design effective gene editing assays. However, it is challenging to profile Cas9 activity in the endogenous cellular environment. Here we leverage our TRIP technology to integrate ~ 1k barcoded reporter genes in the genomes of mouse embryonic stem cells. We target the integrated...

RNA editing is abundant and correlates with task performance in a social bumblebee

Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris are characterized by wide phenotypic variability among genetically similar full-sister workers, suggesting a major role for epigenetic processes. Here, we report a high level of ADAR-mediated RNA editing in the bumblebee, despite the lack of an ADAR1-homolog. We identify 1.15 million unique genomic sites, and 164 recoding sites residing...

Investigating underlying mechanism in spectral narrowing phenomenon induced by microcavity in organic light emitting diodes

This paper reports our experimental studies on the underlying mechanism responsible for electroluminescence spectral narrowing phenomenon in the cavity-based organic light-emitting diodes. It is found that the microcavity generates an emerging phenomenon: a magneto-photoluminescence signal in Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) polymer under photoexcitation, which is...

Single-molecule characterization of extrinsic transcription termination by Sen1 helicase

Extrinsic transcription termination typically involves remodeling of RNA polymerase by an accessory helicase. In yeast this is accomplished by the Sen1 helicase homologous to human senataxin (SETX). To gain insight into these processes we develop a DNA scaffold construct compatible with magnetic-trapping assays and from which S. cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (Pol II), as well as E...

Cortical recruitment determines learning dynamics and strategy

Salience is a broad and widely used concept in neuroscience whose neuronal correlates, however, remain elusive. In behavioral conditioning, salience is used to explain various effects, such as stimulus overshadowing, and refers to how fast and strongly a stimulus can be associated with a conditioned event. Here, we identify sounds of equal intensity and perceptual detectability...

USP32 regulates late endosomal transport and recycling through deubiquitylation of Rab7

The endosomal system is a highly dynamic multifunctional organelle, whose complexity is regulated in part by reversible ubiquitylation. Despite the wide-ranging influence of ubiquitin in endosomal processes, relatively few enzymes utilizing ubiquitin have been described to control endosome integrity and function. Here we reveal the deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB) ubiquitin-specific...

Existence of multiple critical cooling rates which generate different types of monolithic metallic glass

Via fast differential scanning calorimetry using an Au-based glass as an example, we show that metallic glasses should be classified into two types of amorphous/monolithic glass. The first type, termed self-doped glass (SDG), forms quenched-in nuclei or nucleation precursors upon cooling, whereas in the so-called chemically homogeneous glass (CHG) no quenched-in structures are...

Rational approach to guest confinement inside MOF cavities for low-temperature catalysis

Geometric or electronic confinement of guests inside nanoporous hosts promises to deliver unusual catalytic or opto-electronic functionality from existing materials but is challenging to obtain particularly using metastable hosts, such as metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). Reagents (e.g. precursor) may be too large for impregnation and synthesis conditions may also destroy the...