PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 207,701)

STAT6 knockdown using multiple siRNA sequences inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human colorectal and breast cancer cell lines

The transcription factor STAT6 is strongly expressed in various tumours and is most highly expressed in human malignant lymphomas and pancreatic, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers. STAT6 is associated with cancer cell proliferation, an increased malignancy and poor prognosis. Thus, techniques aimed at reducing or blocking STAT6 expression may be useful in treating STAT6high...

Optical clearing potential of immersion-based agents applied to thick mouse brain sections

We have previously demonstrated that the use of a commercially-available immersion-based optical clearing agent (OCA) enables, within 3–6 hours, three-dimensional visualization of subsurface exogenous fluorescent and absorbing markers of vascular architecture and neurodegenerative disease in thick (0.5–1.0mm) mouse brain sections. Nonetheless, the relative performance of...

Different modes of barrel opening suggest a complex pathway of ligand binding in human gastrotropin

Gastrotropin, the intracellular carrier of bile salts in the small intestine, binds two ligand molecules simultaneously in its internal cavity. The molecular rearrangements required for ligand entry are not yet fully clear. To improve our understanding of the binding process we combined molecular dynamics simulations with previously published structural and dynamic NMR parameters...

Large-scale molecular phylogeny, morphology, divergence-time estimation, and the fossil record of advanced caenophidian snakes (Squamata: Serpentes)

Caenophidian snakes include the file snake genus Acrochordus and advanced colubroidean snakes that radiated mainly during the Neogene. Although caenophidian snakes are a well-supported clade, their inferred affinities, based either on molecular or morphological data, remain poorly known or controversial. Here, we provide an expanded molecular phylogenetic analysis of Caenophidia...

Examination of CD302 as a potential therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of adult acute leukemia with ~20,000 new cases yearly. The disease develops in people of all ages, but is more prominent in the elderly, who due to limited treatment options, have poor overall survival rates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting specific cell surface molecules have proven to be safe and effective in different...

Perceived discrimination, health and wellbeing among middle-aged and older lesbian, gay and bisexual people: A prospective study

Objective To examine cross-sectional and prospective associations between perceived discrimination in daily life (based on a range of attributes), sexual orientation discrimination, and health and wellbeing in middle-aged and older lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people. Methods Data were from 304 LGB men and women aged 41–85 years participating in the English Longitudinal Study...

Cervical cancer screening knowledge and barriers among women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Introduction Routine cervical screening has been shown to greatly reduce both the number of new cervical cancers diagnosed each year and the number of deaths resulting from the disease. Nevertheless, cervical screening knowledge and screening uptake is very low in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the coverage of cervical cancer screening is only 1%. In this study, we aimed to...

Maternal caregivers have confluence of altered cortisol, high reward-driven eating, and worse metabolic health

Animal models have shown that chronic stress increases cortisol, which contributes to overeating of highly palatable food, increased abdominal fat and lower cortisol reactivity. Few studies in humans have simultaneously examined these trajectories. We examined premenopausal women, either mothers of children with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (n = 92) or mothers of...

Public attitudes towards genetically modified polled cattle

Genetic modification of farm animals has not been well accepted by the public. Some modifications have the potential to improve animal welfare. One such example is the use of gene editing (i.e. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)) to spread the naturally occurring POLLED gene, as these genetically hornless animals would not need to experience the...

Non-invasive faecal sampling reveals spatial organization and improves measures of genetic diversity for the conservation assessment of territorial species: Caucasian lynx as a case species

The Caucasian lynx, Lynx lynx dinniki, has one of the southernmost distributions in the Eurasian lynx range, covering Anatolian Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran. Little is known about the biology and the genetic status of this subspecies. To collect baseline genetic, ecological and behavioural data and benefit future conservation of L. l. dinniki, we monitored 11 lynx territories...

Peak urea level, leukocyte count and use of invasive ventilation as risk factors of mortality in acute pancreatitis: A retrospective study

Background Acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with high complications. Early, reliable prediction of mortality may improve patient management. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 1,599 patients with AP treated at a single large hospital in southwest China. Models to predict mortality were derived from a subset of 1,062 patients (development dataset), and the...

Consensus among healthcare stakeholders on a collaborative medication therapy management model for chronic diseases in Malaysia; A Delphi study

Background The general problem is lack of inter-professional collaboration and the way private primary care responds to manage chronic diseases in Malaysia. Absence of prescription review, inadequate patient education, the highest percentage of prescribing errors and half of the chronic disease patients are nonadherent. Medicines are the most common and life long used...

Integrated cancer tissue engineering models for precision medicine

Tumors are not merely cancerous cells that undergo mindless proliferation. Rather, they are highly organized and interconnected organ systems. Tumor cells reside in complex microenvironments in which they are subjected to a variety of physical and chemical stimuli that influence cell behavior and ultimately the progression and maintenance of the tumor. As cancer bioengineers, it...

Can a standards-based approach improve access to and quality of primary health care? Findings from an end-of-project evaluation in Ghana

Background Jhpiego implemented a 5-year project to strengthen the Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) model in six coastal districts of Ghana’s Western Region. The project utilized a quality improvement approach (Standards-Based Management and Recognition [SBM-R]) to strengthen implementation fidelity of the CHPS model. This article presents findings from an end...

GDF15 secreted by senescent endothelial cells improves vascular progenitor cell functions

Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is part of the first steps in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) is a cytokine belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor β superfamily and its expression is increased both during ED and in CVD. Because high blood levels of GDF15 have been reported during ED, we hypothesized that GDF15 could be...

The paradox of acceptance: A content analysis of Iranian married female adolescent in confronting pregnancy

Adolescent pregnancy is a major health problem significantly associated with adverse effects on the health of both adolescents and their newborns. However, there is a lack of clarity over adolescent pregnancy from adolescents' perspective, particularly in the low- and middle income countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian married female...

The postcranial anatomy of Brasilodon quadrangularis and the acquisition of mammaliaform traits among non-mammaliaform cynodonts

Brasilodon quadrangularis (Cynodontia, Probainognathia) is an iconic non-mammaliaform cynodont from the Late Triassic of Brazil (Riograndia Assemblage Zone, Candelária Sequence), being considered as the sister taxon of Mammaliaformes. Although its phylogenetic position is very important, several aspects of its postcranial anatomy remain unclear or unstudied. Here, we present a...

Three asymptomatic animal infection models of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by hantaviruses

Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) are rodent-borne hantaviruses that are the primary causes of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia. The development of well characterized animal models of HTNV and PUUV infection is critical for the evaluation and the potential licensure of HFRS vaccines and therapeutics. In this study we present three animal...

Realizing women´s right to maternal health: A study of awareness of rights and utilization of maternal health services among reproductive age women in two rural districts in Tanzania

Background Maternal mortality rates are still unacceptably high in many countries, indicating violation of women´s human right to life and health. Access to adequate information about maternal health rights and available services are essential aspects of realizing women´s right to accessible health care. This study aimed at assessing awareness of the right to access maternal...

Clozapine administration enhanced functional recovery after cuprizone demyelination

The atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine, is used to treat a variety of neurological disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease and readily crosses the blood brain barrier to interact with a wide range of neuroreceptors including those for dopamine and serotonin. Recent work has shown that clozapine can reduce neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune...

Sociodemographic disparities in corticolimbic structures

This study sought to examine the interactive relations of socioeconomic status and race to corticolimbic regions that may play a key role in translating stress to the poor health outcomes overrepresented among those of lower socioeconomic status and African American race. Participants were 200 community-dwelling, self-identified African American and White adults from the Healthy...

Heme oxygenase-1—Dependent anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin in zymosan-injected subcutaneous air pouch in mice

Statins exert pleiotropic and beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. We have previously reported that macrophages treated with statins increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective stress protein, responsible for the degradation of heme. In the present study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on...

The cardiac diagnostic work-up in stroke patients—A subanalysis of the Find-AFRANDOMISED trial

Background The cardiac diagnostic workup of stroke patients, especially the value of echocardiography and enhanced and prolonged Holter-ECG monitoring, is still a matter of debate. We aimed to analyse the impact of pathologies detected by echocardiography and ECG monitoring on therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Methods Find-AFRANDOMISED was a prospective multicenter study which...

The challenges of recognising individuals with few distinguishing features: Identifying red foxes Vulpes vulpes from camera-trap photos

Over the last two decades, camera traps have revolutionised the ability of biologists to undertake faunal surveys and estimate population densities, although identifying individuals of species with subtle markings remains challenging. We conducted a two-year camera-trapping study as part of a long-term study of urban foxes: our objectives were to determine whether red foxes could...

Bird community shifts associated with saltwater exposure in coastal forests at the leading edge of rising sea level

Rising sea levels dramatically alter the vegetation composition and structure of coastal ecosystems. However, the implications of these changes for coastal wildlife are poorly understood. We aimed to quantify responses of avian communities to forest change (i.e., ghost forests) in a low-lying coastal region highly vulnerable to rising sea level. We conducted point counts to...