PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 201,248)

Improving preterm newborn identification in low-resource settings with machine learning

Background Globally, preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal death with estimated prevalence and associated mortality highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Accurate identification of preterm infants is important at the individual level for appropriate clinical intervention as well as at the population level for informed policy decisions and resource...

Multispectral imaging and unmanned aerial systems for cotton plant phenotyping

This paper demonstrates the application of aerial multispectral images in cotton plant phenotyping. Four phenotypic traits (plant height, canopy cover, vegetation index, and flower) were measured from multispectral images captured by a multispectral camera on an unmanned aerial system. Data were collected on eight different days from two fields. Ortho-mosaic and digital elevation...

Fluorescent reporter assays provide direct, accurate, quantitative measurements of MGMT status in human cells

The DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) strongly influences the effectiveness of cancer treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents, and MGMT status in cancer cells could potentially contribute to tailored therapies for individual patients. However, the promoter methylation and immunohistochemical assays presently used for measuring MGMT in...

Development and validation of Yatt Suicide Attitude Scale (YSAS) in Malaysia

Introduction Despite suicide rate becoming a growing trend in research locally and globally, there is no standard measuring instrument developed in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to establish the first ever Malay version of suicide screening tool that is suitable and fit with multiracial and complex culture of Malaysia. Methods This study comprises of three phases, namely (1...

A computational scheme for internal models not requiring precise system parameters

Utilization by humans of a precise and adaptable internal model of the dynamics of the body in generating movements is a well-supported concept. The prevailing opinion is that such an internal model ceaselessly develops through long-term repetition and accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). However, a long-term learning process would not be absolutely necessary for the...

Length of stay following cesarean sections: A population based study in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (North-Eastern Italy), 2005-2015

Background Births by cesarean section (CS) usually require longer recovery time, and as a result women remain hospitalized longer following CS than vaginal delivery (VD). A number of strategies have been proposed to reduce avoidable health care costs associated with childbirth. Among these, the containment of length of hospital stay (LoS) has been identified as an important...

Trends in global shark attacks

Shark attacks are a global phenomenon that attracts widespread attention and publicity, often with negative outcomes for shark populations. Despite the widespread perceptions of shark attacks, trends in human water activities and shark populations are both dynamic, resulting in variable rates of shark attacks over space and time. Understanding variable trends in shark attacks may...

Genetic risk assessment of thrombophilia in patients with adverse obstetric outcomes

Objectives To investigate the incidence of inherited thrombophilias in patients with adverse obstetric outcomes and to compare detection rates of thrombophilias between standard blood tests and a novel genetic test. Methods This is a case-control prospective study performed in Hospital Sant Joan de Déu in Barcelona, Spain. Cases had a history of intrauterine growth restriction...

3500 years of shellfish mariculture on the Northwest Coast of North America

Ancient systems of mariculture were foundations of social-ecological systems of many coastal Indigenous Peoples. However, since such systems either do not leave tangible remains in the archaeological record, and/or are hard to date, we know little about their development and use. Clam gardens, traditional mariculture features located within the intertidal zone along the Northwest...

Transcription factor Sp4 is required for hyperalgesic state persistence

Understanding how painful hypersensitive states develop and persist beyond the initial hours to days is critically important in the effort to devise strategies to prevent and/or reverse chronic painful states. Changes in nociceptor transcription can alter the abundance of nociceptive signaling elements, resulting in longer-term change in nociceptor phenotype. As a result...

Applicability of personal laser scanning in forestry inventory

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has been widely used in forestry surveys in the form of airborne laser scanning (ALS), terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and mobile laser scanning (MLS). The acquisition of important basic tree parameters (e.g., diameter at breast height and tree position) in forest inventory did not solve the problem of low measurement efficiency or...

Most UK scientists who publish extremely highly-cited papers do not secure funding from major public and charity funders: A descriptive analysis

The UK is one of the largest funders of health research in the world, but little is known about how health funding is spent. Our study explores whether major UK public and charitable health research funders support the research of UK-based scientists producing the most highly-cited research. To address this question, we searched for UK-based authors of peer-reviewed papers that...

Poor supply chain management and stock-outs of point-of-care diagnostic tests in Upper East Region’s primary healthcare clinics, Ghana

Introduction Several supply chain components are important to sustain point-of-care (POC) testing services in rural settings. To evaluate the availability of POC diagnostic tests in rural Ghana’s primary healthcare (PHC) clinics, we conducted an audit of the supply chain management for POC diagnostic services in rural Upper East Region’s (UER) PHC clinics, Ghana to determine the...

Comparison of efficiency and specificity of CRISPR-associated (Cas) nucleases in plants: An expanded toolkit for precision genome engineering

Molecular tools adapted from bacterial CRISPR (Clustered Regulatory Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) systems for adaptive immunity have become widely used for plant genome engineering, both to investigate gene functions and to engineer desirable traits. A number of different Cas (CRISPR-associated) nucleases are now used but, as most studies performed to date have...

Quality of life in climacteric women assisted by primary health care

This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and associated factors of climacteric women in Brazil using a random and representative sample of women assisted by primary care professionals. We investigated the variables using the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire, MENQOL, whose mean scores were compared using Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis tests...

Waterpipe smoke and e-cigarette vapor differentially affect circadian molecular clock gene expression in mouse lungs

The use of emerging tobacco products, such as waterpipe or hookah and electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), has gained significant popularity and are promoted as safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes. Circadian systems are internal biological oscillations that are considered important regulators of immune functions in mammals. Tobacco induced inflammatory lung diseases...

Control of fibrinolytic drug injection via real-time ultrasonic monitoring of blood coagulation

In the present study, we investigated the capabilities of a novel ultrasonic approach for real-time control of fibrinolysis under flow conditions. Ultrasonic monitoring was performed in a specially designed experimental in vitro system. Fibrinolytic agents were automatically injected at ultrasonically determined stages of the blood clotting. The following clots dissolution in the...

Genetic dissection of agronomic and quality traits based on association mapping and genomic selection approaches in durum wheat grown in Southern Spain

Climatic conditions affect the growth, development and final crop production. As wheat is of paramount importance as a staple crop in the human diet, there is a growing need to study its abiotic stress adaptation through the performance of key breeding traits. New and complementary approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are used for...

Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes—Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012

Background In 2007 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the global initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis (congenital syphilis, or CS). To assess progress towards the goal of <50 CS cases per 100,000 live births, we generated regional and global estimates of maternal and congenital syphilis for 2016 and updated the 2012 estimates. Methods...

Evaluation of the responsiveness of outcome measures after spine injection: A retrospective study

Discrepancies in patients’ responses to various outcome measures challenge clinicians’ evaluation of treatment outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to 1) evaluate the concordance of outcome measures after spine injection, 2) determine the patient variables that lead to discordant responses, and 3) suggest practical outcome measure for spine injections with good responsiveness. From...

Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus increases developmental defects in the enamel of offspring

Background and objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term maternal and perinatal repercussions. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term consequences of intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia on Developmental Defects of Enamel (DDE) in offspring. Results Overall, 50 children of women with GDM and 250 children of normoglycemic women...

Stereotypes about surgeon warmth and competence: The role of surgeon gender

Past research indicates that patient perceptions of surgeon warmth and competence influence treatment expectancies and satisfaction with treatment outcomes. Stereotypes have a powerful impact on impression formation. The present research explores stereotypes about surgeon warmth and competence and investigates the extent to which surgeon gender influences perceptions of female...

Producing knowledge by admitting ignorance: Enhancing data quality through an “I don’t know” option in citizen science

The “noisy labeler problem” in crowdsourced data has attracted great attention in recent years, with important ramifications in citizen science, where non-experts must produce high-quality data. Particularly relevant to citizen science is dynamic task allocation, in which the level of agreement among labelers can be progressively updated through the information-theoretic notion...

Isolating pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells ex vivo: Implications for pulmonary arterial hypertension, and a caution on the use of commercial biomaterials

Transcriptomic analysis of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells from experimental models offers insight into pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) pathobiology. However, culturing may alter the molecular profile of endothelial cells prior to analysis, limiting the translational relevance of results. Here we present a novel and validated method for isolating RNA from...

Evolution of international collaborative research efforts to develop non-Cochrane systematic reviews

This research-on-research study describes efforts to develop non-Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) by analyzing demographical and time-course collaborations between international institutions using protocols registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) or published in scientific journals. We have published an a priori protocol to develop...