PLOS ONE

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/

List of Papers (Total 196,192)

Redox correlation in muscle lengthening and immune response in eccentric exercise

This study was designed to examine the potential involvement of reactive oxygen species in skeletal muscle dysfunction linked with stretching in a mouse model and to explore the effects of combined antioxidant intake on peripheral leukocyte apoptosis following eccentrically-biased downhill runs in human subjects. In the mouse model, diaphragmatic muscle was stretched by 30% of...

Efficient algorithms for Longest Common Subsequence of two bucket orders to speed up pairwise genetic map comparison

Genetic maps order genetic markers along chromosomes. They are, for instance, extensively used in marker-assisted selection to accelerate breeding programs. Even for the same species, people often have to deal with several alternative maps obtained using different ordering methods or different datasets, e.g. resulting from different segregating populations. Having efficient tools...

Multi-criteria decision support for planning and evaluation of performance of viral marketing campaigns in social networks

The current marketing landscape, apart from conventional approaches, consists of campaigns designed especially for launching information diffusion processes within online networks. Associated research is focused on information propagation models, campaign initialization strategies and factors affecting campaign dynamics. In terms of algorithms and performance evaluation, the...

The effect of antiretroviral treatment on selected genes in whole blood from HIV-infected adults sensitised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

HIV-1 co-infection is a leading cause of susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB), with the risk of TB being increased at all stages of HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is the most effective way to reduce the risk of TB in HIV-1 co-infected people. Studying protective, ART-induced, immune restoration in HIV-1 infected individuals sensitised by Mycobacterium tuberculosis...

Do young black men who have sex with men in the deep south prefer traditional over alternative STI testing?

Background High sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates in the South, especially among young black men who have sex with men (YB MSM), make STI testing imperative for public health. Purpose To identify STI testing preferences in this population to improve testing delivery and utilization. Methods YB MSM ages 16–35 in Birmingham, Alabama participated in focus groups (FG). A...

Nuclear arms races: Experimental evolution for mating success in the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune

When many gametes compete to fertilize a limited number of compatible gametes, sexual selection will favour traits that increase competitive success during mating. In animals and plants, sperm and pollen competition have yielded many interesting adaptations for improved mating success. In fungi, similar processes have not been shown directly yet. We test the hypothesis that...

Latent toxoplasmosis and olfactory functions of Rh positive and Rh negative subjects

Backgrounds The prevalence of toxoplasmosis is higher in schizophrenics than in the general population. It has been suggested that certain symptoms of schizophrenia, including changes in olfactory functions, are in fact symptoms of toxoplasmosis that can be easily detected in schizophrenics only due to the increased prevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population. Schizophrenics...

Can we achieve universal health coverage without a focus on disability? Results from a national case-control study in Guatemala

Objective To compare access to healthcare services for people with disabilities to those without disabilities, within a national case-control study in Guatemala. Methods We undertook a population-based case-control study, nested within a national survey in Guatemala. Cases with disabilities were people with self-reported difficulties in functioning. One control without...

Impact of central and peripheral estrogen treatment on anxiety and depression phenotypes in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity

Obesity and diabetes increase the risk of depression, and the incidence of these conditions increases rapidly after menopause, but few animal models of postmenopausal obesity have been available. We developed a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity that exhibited anxiety and depressive phenotypes in behavioral tests. To examine the effect of estradiol (E2) in the model, we...

Rosmarinic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis seedlings through reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

Phytotoxic potential of rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid ester largely found in aromatic species, was evaluated on Arabidopsis through metabolomic and microscopic approaches. In-vitro bioassays pointed out that RA affected root growth and morphology, causing ROS burst, ROS scavengers activity inhibition and consequently, an alteration on cells organization and ultrastructure...

Rapid birth-death evolution and positive selection in detoxification-type glutathione S-transferases in mammals

Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes that may have evolved in response to changes of environmental substrates. GST genes formed a multigene family and in mammals, there are six classes known as Alpha, Mu, Omega, Pi, Theta, and Zeta. Recent studies in phase I detoxification system specifically the cytochrome P450s provided a general explanation on...

A TNFSF13B functional variant is not involved in systemic sclerosis and giant cell arteritis susceptibility

Background The TNFSF13B (TNF superfamily member 13b) gene encodes BAFF, a cytokine with a crucial role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. An insertion-deletion variant (GCTGT→A) of this gene, leading to increased levels of BAFF, has been recently implicated in the genetic predisposition to several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus...

Valuation of the EQ-5D-5L in Taiwan

Objectives To date, a value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on the health state preferences of the general Taiwanese population has not been available. This study aimed to develop a Taiwanese value set for EQ-5D-5L to facilitate health technology assessment for medical products and services. Methods An international standardized protocol for EQ-5D-5L valuation studies developed by the...

Inflammation and transcriptional responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in classic ataxia telangiectasia

Introduction Classic ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by early onset ataxia, immune deficiency, sino-pulmonary disease, lymphoid/solid malignancies and telangiectasias. Prior studies have suggested that chronic inflammation and premature aging may contribute to the development of malignancy and pulmonary disease in people with A-T. To...

Changes in bud morphology, growth-related genes and nutritional status during cheliped regeneration in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

During pond culture of Eriocheir sinensis, a high limb-impairment rate restricts the industry development and quality. Therefore, research on limb autotomy and regeneration has important practical significance for the industrial development and basic biology of E. sinensis. This study evaluated the changes in bud morphology, growth-related gene expression and nutritional status...

Factors associated with institutional delivery: Findings from a cross-sectional study in Mara and Kagera regions in Tanzania

In Tanzania, maternal mortality has stagnated over the last 10 years, and some of the areas with the worst indicators are in the Lake and Western Zones. This study investigates the factors associated with institutional deliveries among women aged 15–49 years in two regions of the Lake Zone. Data were extracted from a cross-sectional household survey of 1,214 women aged 15–49...

Do good, stay well. Well-being and work satisfaction among German refugee helpers: A national cross-sectional study

Background Since 2015, more than 3 million refugees have reached the European Union. In order to receive and integrate them, societies heavily rely on relief organizations and private initiatives. Yet the well-being, work-satisfaction and possible health implications for refugee helpers have not been adequately addressed. Methods In a German national cross-sectional study, we...

Self-assembled micro-computed tomography for dental education

This study used available or purchased equipment and an image reconstruction system developed by the college of dentistry to establish a basic self-assembled micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system. Such a system would be suitable for teaching dental radiology to dental students. Specifically, it could help students to understand the principles governing dental cone-beam...

Physiological relevance of epithelial geometry: New insights into the standing gradient model and the role of LI cadherin

We introduce a mathematical model of an absorbing leaky epithelium to reconsider the problem formulated by Diamond and Bossert in 1967: whether “… some distinctive physiological properties of epithelia might arise as geometrical consequences of epithelial ultrastructure”. A standing gradient model of the intercellular cleft (IC) is presented that includes tight junctions (TJ) and...

Generalizing soil properties in geographic space: Approaches used and ways forward

Soil is one of the most complex systems on Earth, functioning at the interface between the lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and generating a multitude of functions. Moreover, soil constitutes the belowground environment from which plants capture water and nutrients. Despite their great importance, soil properties are often not sufficiently considered in other...

Trynity controls epidermal barrier function and respiratory tube maturation in Drosophila by modulating apical extracellular matrix nano-patterning

The outer surface of insects is covered by the cuticle, which is derived from the apical extracellular matrix (aECM). The aECM is secreted by epidermal cells during embryogenesis. The aECM exhibits large variations in structure, function, and constituent molecules, reflecting the enormous diversity in insect appearances. To investigate the molecular principles of aECM...

The Laplace Project: An integrated suite for preparing and transferring atom probe samples under cryogenic and UHV conditions

We present sample transfer instrumentation and integrated protocols for the preparation and atom probe characterization of environmentally-sensitive materials. Ultra-high vacuum cryogenic suitcases allow specimen transfer between preparation, processing and several imaging platforms without exposure to atmospheric contamination. For expedient transfers, we installed a fast...