Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 29,448)

Exquisitely-preserved, high-definition skin traces in diminutive theropod tracks from the Cretaceous of Korea

Small theropod tracks, ichnogenus Minisauripus, from the Jinju Formation (Cretaceous) of Korea reveal exquisitely preserved skin texture impressions. This is the first report for any dinosaur of skin traces that cover entire footprints, and every footprint in a trackway. Special sedimentological conditions allowed footprint registration without smearing of skin texture patterns...

Diattenuation Imaging reveals different brain tissue properties

When transmitting polarised light through histological brain sections, different types of diattenuation (polarisation-dependent attenuation of light) can be observed: In some brain regions, the light is minimally attenuated when it is polarised parallel to the nerve fibres (referred to as D+), in others, it is maximally attenuated (referred to as D−). The underlying mechanisms of...

Synthesis of salt-stable fluorescent nanoparticles (quantum dots) by polyextremophile halophilic bacteria

Here we report the biological synthesis of CdS fluorescent nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) by polyextremophile halophilic bacteria isolated from Atacama Salt Flat (Chile), Uyuni Salt Flat (Bolivia) and the Dead Sea (Israel). In particular, a Halobacillus sp. DS2, a strain presenting high resistance to NaCl (3–22%), acidic pH (1–4) and cadmium (CdCl2 MIC: 1,375 mM) was used for...

Integrator is a key component of human telomerase RNA biogenesis

Telomeres are special DNA-protein structures that are located at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. The telomere length determines the proliferation potential of cells. Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system. While telomerase is inactive in the majority of somatic cells, its activity determines the clonogenic potential of stem cells as a...

Introduction of ‘Generalized Genomic Signatures’ for the quantification of neighbour preferences leads to taxonomy- and functionality-based distinction among sequences

Analysis of DNA composition at several length scales constitutes the bulk of many early studies aimed at unravelling the complexity of the organization and functionality of genomes. Dinucleotide relative abundances are considered an idiosyncratic feature of genomes, regarded as a ‘genomic signature’. Motivated by this finding, we introduce the ‘Generalized Genomic Signatures...

Efficacy of High-intensity Statin Use for Transient Ischemic Attack Patients with Positive Diffusion-weighted Imaging

To determine whether positive or negative DWI TIA patients could get benefits from HST we conducted a cohort study which data from the prospective, hospital-based, TIA database of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. The end-point was 7-day and 90-day incidence of stroke. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the association between end...

High content screening identifies monensin as an EMT-selective cytotoxic compound

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in cancer metastasis and drug resistance. Specifically targeting cancer cells in an EMT-like state may have therapeutic value. In this study, we developed a cell imaging-based high-content screening protocol to identify EMT-selective cytotoxic compounds. Among the 2,640 compounds tested, salinomycin and monensin, both...

Pancreatic adenocarcinomas with mature blood vessels have better overall survival

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is known for its hypovascularity. Bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenic drug, added to standard chemotherapy demonstrated no improvement in outcome for PDAC. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased vascularity may be associated with improved outcomes in PDAC possibly due to better delivery of tumor specific immune cells. To test this hypothesis...

Clonal dynamics monitoring during clinical evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is the most prevalent leukaemia in Western countries. It is an incurable disease characterized by a highly variable clinical course. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is an ideal model for studying clonal heterogeneity and dynamics during cancer progression, response to therapy and/or relapse because the disease usually develops over several years. Here...

Exploration of potential risks of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Using Geographically Weighted Regression Model

To quantify the associations between the spatial characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic and meteorological factors (average temperature (AT), relative humidity (RH), average pressure (AP), average wind speed (AW) and average rainfall (AR)), child population density (CPD) and Per capita GDP (GDP) in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, and to detect...

A Vaccine Based on a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Expressing Zika Virus Structural Proteins Controls Zika Virus Replication in Mice

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects humans and can cause severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Since 2007 there have been three large outbreaks; the last and larger spread in the Americas in 2015. Actually, ZIKV is circulating in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands, and...

Low-level light therapy reduces platelet destruction during extracorporeal circulation

Extracorporeal circulation causes many deleterious effects on blood cells. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the red/near-infrared spectral range is known for its cytoprotective properties but its use during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has not yet been studied. We aimed to assess whether LLLT protects platelets during CPB. 24 pigs were connected to 1-hour-CPB and observed for...

A novel adiposity index as an integrated predictor of cardiometabolic disease morbidity and mortality

We propose a new anthropometric index, weight-adjusted-waist index (WWI), to assess adiposity by standardizing waist circumference (WC) for weight. WWI, calculated as WC (cm) divided by the square root of weight (kg) (cm/√kg), was measured from 465,629 subjects in the Korean nationwide cohort (2008–2013). Cox regression analysis was used to compare WWI with BMI, WC, waist-to...

Analysis of the Genome and Metabolome of Marine Myxobacteria Reveals High Potential for Biosynthesis of Novel Specialized Metabolites

Comparative genomic/metabolomic analysis is a powerful tool to disclose the potential of microbes for the biosynthesis of novel specialized metabolites. In the group of marine myxobacteria only a limited number of isolated species and sequenced genomes is so far available. However, the few compounds isolated thereof so far show interesting bioactivities and even novel chemical...

Targeting CD40 enhances antibody- and CD8-mediated protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infects almost all children under the age of one and is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Despite several decades of research with dozens of candidate vaccines being vigorously evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies, there is no licensed vaccine available to date. Here, the RSV fusion protein (F) was fused with CD40...

Super-resolution imaging using nano-bells

In this paper we demonstrate a new scheme for optical super-resolution, inspired, in-part, by PALM and STORM. In this scheme each object in the field of view is tagged with a signal that allows them to be detected separately. By doing this we can identify and locate each object separately with significantly higher resolution than the diffraction limit. We demonstrate this by...

Peri-personal space as a prior in coupling visual and proprioceptive signals

It has been suggested that the integration of multiple body-related sources of information within the peri-personal space (PPS) scaffolds body ownership. However, a normative computational framework detailing the functional role of PPS is still missing. Here we cast PPS as a visuo-proprioceptive Bayesian inference problem whereby objects we see in our environment are more likely...

A Network Model of Resilience Factors for Adolescents with and without Exposure to Childhood Adversity

Resilience factors (RFs) help prevent mental health problems after childhood adversity (CA). RFs are known to be related, but it is currently unknown how their interrelations facilitate mental health. Here, we used network analysis to examine the interrelations between ten RFs in 14-year-old adolescents exposed (‘CA’; n = 638) and not exposed to CA (‘no-CA’; n = 501). We found...

Clinical characteristics of patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the 2013/2014 and 2015/2016 clade 6B/6B.1/6B.2-predominant outbreaks

A novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus emerged in 2009 globally, and it continues to circulate in humans. The National Influenza Surveillance Network in Taiwan identified five A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant seasons, representing the 2009/2010, 2010/2011, 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2015/2016 outbreaks from 2009 to 2016. Independently, a retrospective cohort study (which enrolled...

Lying down frequency as a discomfort index in heat stressed Holstein bull calves

Changes in lying behaviour in response to extreme ambient temperatures have not been examined in dairy calves so far. In this study, lying time, and frequency of lying down were investigated in shaded (n = 8) and non-shaded (n = 8) Holstein bull calves during a 5-d period [temperature, average/max (°C); Day 1 (control, all calves shaded): 22.9/29.4, Day 2 (heat stress day): 28.3...

Stable and unstable regions of the Lorenz system

The stable and unstable regions of the Lorenz system are studied. We discuss the relationship between the initial conditions and both these regions, specifically, the preference for the trajectory of the Lorenz system to move towards the left or right equilibrium-point region from an initial point and the residence time of a trajectory in an equilibrium-point region. For this...

Formation of massive iron deposits linked to explosive volcanic eruptions

The genetic link between magmas and ore deposit formation is well documented by studies of fossil hydrothermal systems associated with magmatic intrusions at depth. However, the role of explosive volcanic processes as active agents of mineralization remains unexplored owing to the fact that metals and volatiles are released into the atmosphere during the eruption of arc volcanoes...

Large-scale 3-D interconnected Ni nanotube networks with controlled structural and magnetic properties

Large-scale, electrically interconnected three-dimensional (3-D) Ni crossed nanotube networks have been fabricated using an electrochemical dealloying method within the crossed nanopores of polymer host membranes. This method paves the way for the easy and cost-effective fabrication of 3-D magnetic NT networks with precise spatial arrangement and diameter and wall thickness of 10...

Ulinastatin is effective in reducing mortality for critically ill patients with sepsis: a causal mediation analysis

Ulinastatin has been found to have anti-inflammatory effect for patients with sepsis. However, its clinical effects were conflicting. The study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of ulinastatin and to perform mediation analysis to explore the proportion of the total effects that can be explained by inflammatory responses. This is a retrospective study involving...

On-Demand Design of Tunable Complete Photonic Band Gaps based on Bloch Mode Analysis

The fundamental property of photonic crystals is the band gap effect, which arises from the periodic dielectric modulation of electromagnetic waves and plays an indispensable role in manipulating light. Ever since the first photonic-bandgap structure was discovered, the ability to tune its bandgap across a wide wavelength range has been highly desirable. Therefore, obtaining...