Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 39,448)

Development and Validation of a Pathology Image Analysis-based Predictive Model for Lung Adenocarcinoma Prognosis - A Multi-cohort Study

Prediction of disease prognosis is essential for improving cancer patient care. Previously, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using quantitative morphological features of tumor pathology images to predict the prognosis of lung cancer patients in a single cohort. In this study, we developed and validated a pathology image-based predictive model for the prognosis of lung...

The cell adhesion protein CAR is a negative regulator of synaptic transmission

The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for normal electrical conductance in the heart, but its role in the postnatal brain is largely unknown. Using brain specific CAR knockout mice (KO), we discovered an unexpected role of CAR in neuronal communication. This includes increased basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal Schaffer collaterals, resistance to...

Dense Quantum Measurement Theory

Quantum measurement is a fundamental cornerstone of experimental quantum computations. The main issues in current quantum measurement strategies are the high number of measurement rounds to determine a global optimal measurement output and the low success probability of finding a global optimal measurement output. Each measurement round requires preparing the quantum system and...

miR-150-5p represses TP53 tumor suppressor gene to promote proliferation of colon adenocarcinoma

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in regulation of numerous biological processes and pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. In addition, miRNAs contribute to carcinogenesis by acting as oncogenic or tumor suppressive. Circulating miRNAs including miR-150-5p are associated with colorectal cancer progression, and the putative targets of miR-150-5p include tumor suppressor...

Targeting GPER1 to suppress autophagy as a male-specific therapeutic strategy for iron-induced striatal injury

The functional outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young male patients are poor than in premenopausal women. After ICH, ferrous iron accumulation causes a higher level of oxidative injury associated with autophagic cell death in striatum of male mice than in females. In rodent model of ferrous citrate (FC)-infusion that simulates iron accumulation after ICH, female...

Reduced Basal Nitric Oxide Production Induces Precancerous Mammary Lesions via ERBB2 and TGFβ

One third of newly diagnosed breast cancers in the US are early-stage lesions. The etiological understanding and treatment of these lesions have become major clinical challenges. Because breast cancer risk factors are often linked to aberrant nitric oxide (NO) production, we hypothesized that abnormal NO levels might contribute to the formation of early-stage breast lesions. We...

Localised states and their capture characteristics in amorphous phase-change materials

As phase-change materials are poised to play a key role in next-generation computing systems, improving the current understanding of electrical transport in their amorphous phase can further strengthen their technological competitiveness. Even though the interaction of charge carriers with disorder-induced localised states largely affect the field-dependent conductivity, a clear...

Gut microbiota and butyrate level changes associated with the long-term administration of proton pump inhibitors to old rats

The association between adverse effects of PPI and gut microbiota in old age has yet to be elucidated. We assessed changes in the gut microbiota and butyrate levels following the long-term administration of PPIs to old rats and investigated their associations. F344 aged male rats were fed a PPI-supplemented diet for 50 weeks. The ileal microbiota was analysed by metagenomic...

Effects of boat noise on fish fast-start escape response depend on engine type

Vessel noise represents a relatively recent but rapidly increasing form of pollution, which affects the many organisms that use sound to inform their behavioural decisions. Recent research shows that anthropogenic noise can lead to reduced responsiveness to risk and higher mortality. The current laboratory experiment determined whether the playback of noise from motorboats...

Carbon Catabolite Repression in Yeast is Not Limited to Glucose

Cells adapt their gene expression and their metabolism in response to a changing environment. Glucose represses expression of genes involved in the catabolism of other carbon sources in a process known as (carbon) catabolite repression. However, the relationships between “poor” carbon sources is less characterized. Here we show that in addition to the well-characterized glucose...

Preparation and characterization of general-purpose gelatin-based co-loading flavonoids nano-core structure

Flavonoids (FLAs) possess anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-oxidant properties. In this study, gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) with controllable surface potential and diameter was prepared through a modified two-step desolvation. Two well-known flavonoids, namely, low-molecular weight Genistein (GEN) and high-molecular weight Icariin (ICA), were adsorbed onto the...

SMAD3 directly regulates cell cycle genes to maintain arrest in granulosa cells of mouse primordial follicles

Primordial follicles, consisting of granulosa cell (GC)-enveloped oocytes are maintained in a state of developmental arrest until activated to grow. The mechanism that operates to maintain this arrested state in GCs is currently unknown. Here, we show the TGFβ-activated transcription factor SMAD3 is expressed in primordial GC nuclei alongside the cell cycle proteins, cyclin D2...

Propidium iodide staining underestimates viability of adherent bacterial cells

Combining membrane impermeable DNA-binding stain propidium iodide (PI) with membrane-permeable DNA-binding counterstains is a widely used approach for bacterial viability staining. In this paper we show that PI staining of adherent cells in biofilms may significantly underestimate bacterial viability due to the presence of extracellular nucleic acids (eNA). We demonstrate that...

Impact and mitigation of angular uncertainties in Bragg coherent x-ray diffraction imaging

Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a powerful technique to explore the local strain state and morphology of microscale crystals. The method can potentially reach nanometer-scale spatial resolution thanks to the advances in synchrotron design that dramatically increase coherent flux. However, there are experimental bottlenecks that may limit the image reconstruction...

KCC1 Activation protects Mice from the Development of Experimental Cerebral Malaria

Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes half a million deaths per year, with up to 9% of this mortality caused by cerebral malaria (CM). One of the major processes contributing to the development of CM is an excess of host inflammatory cytokines. Recently K+ signaling has emerged as an important mediator of the inflammatory response to infection; we therefore investigated whether...

Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in obese women predicts an epigenetic signature for future endometrial cancer

Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with the oncogenesis of a variety of human cancers, including endometrial cancer (EC), the seventh most common cancer among women. Obesity is known to be a high-risk factor for EC; however, whether obesity influences DNA methylation in the presymptomatic uterus and if this influences EC development remain unclear. Here, we performed genome...

Effect of Adding Carbon Nanotubes on Corrosion Rates and Steel-Concrete Bond

This paper presents a continuation of the evaluation of utilizing Nano Carbon Tubes (CNTs) in reinforced concrete (CNT-CRETE). The compressive, tensile and bond strengths of the samples with and without CNTs were investigated. Scanning Electron Microscope (SME) was utilized to study the microstructure of the prepared samples. In addition, the corrosion resistance of CNT-CRETE...

Application of tabu search-based Bayesian networks in exploring related factors of liver cirrhosis complicated with hepatic encephalopathy and disease identification

This study aimed to explore the related factors and strengths of hepatic cirrhosis complicated with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) by multivariate logistic regression analysis and tabu search-based Bayesian networks (BNs), and to deduce the probability of HE in patients with cirrhosis under different conditions through BN reasoning. Multivariate logistic regression analysis...

Elevated Glycemic Gap Predicts Acute Respiratory Failure and In-hospital Mortality in Acute Heart Failure Patients with Diabetes

Diabetes is a common comorbidity in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF), but the relationship between admission glucose level, glycemic gap, and in-hospital mortality in patients with both conditions has not been investigated thoroughly. Clinical data for admission glucose, glycemic gap and in-hospital death in 425 diabetic patients hospitalized because of AHF...

Influence of high glucose on mesangial cell-derived exosome composition, secretion and cell communication

Mesangial cells stimulated with high glucose (HG) exhibit increased intracellular angiotensin II (AngII) synthesis that is correlated with the upregulation of AngII target genes, such as profibrotic cytokines. The intracrine effects of AngII can be mediated by several molecules transferred to other cells via exosomes (Exos), which play a key role in cellular communication under...

Natural arsenic with a unique order structure: potential for new quantum materials

Study of arsenic (As) provides guidelines for the development of next-generation materials. We clarify the unique structure of the third crystalline polymorph of natural As (Pnm21-As) by crystallographical experiment and the electronic structure by first-principles computational method. The crystal structure of Pnm21-As is a novel structure in which the basic portions of semi...

Implementation of SWAP test for two unknown states in photons via cross-Kerr nonlinearities under decoherence effect

We present an optical scheme for a SWAP test (controlled swap operation) that can determine whether the difference between two unknown states (photons) using cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs). The SWAP test, based on quantum fingerprinting, has been widely applied to various quantum information processing (QIP) schemes. Thus, for a reliable QIP scheme, it is important to...

Development and validation of a prediction model for active tuberculosis case finding among HIV-negative/unknown populations

A prediction model of prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in HIV negative/unknown individuals was developed to assist systematic screening. Data from a large TB screening trial were used. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed in the South African (SA) training dataset, using TB symptoms and risk factors as predictors. The model was converted into a scoring...

An innate interaction between IL-18 and the propeptide that inactivates its precursor form

Uncontrolled secretion of mature interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 is responsible for severe autoinflammatory or autoimmune disorders and various allergic diseases. Here we report an intramolecular interaction between IL-18 and its propeptide, which is proteolytically removed from its precursor proIL-18 during maturation. The intramolecular interaction was recapitulated...