Scientific Reports

http://www.nature.com/srep

List of Papers (Total 35,569)

Single-trial classification of awareness state during anesthesia by measuring critical dynamics of global brain activity

In daily life, in the operating room and in the laboratory, the operational way to assess wakefulness and consciousness is through responsiveness. A number of studies suggest that the awake, conscious state is not the default behavior of an assembly of neurons, but rather a very special state of activity that has to be actively maintained and curated to support its functional...

Rg6, a rare ginsenoside, inhibits systemic inflammation through the induction of interleukin-10 and microRNA-146a

The immunobiological functions of Rg6, a rare ginsenoside from ginseng, have been largely unreported. In this paper, we demonstrate that Rg6 has a significant immunosuppressive function on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-induced systemic inflammatory responses. Rg6 was found to negatively regulate pro-inflammatory responses and severity in vivo, and thus induced recovery in mice with...

Exquisitely-preserved, high-definition skin traces in diminutive theropod tracks from the Cretaceous of Korea

Small theropod tracks, ichnogenus Minisauripus, from the Jinju Formation (Cretaceous) of Korea reveal exquisitely preserved skin texture impressions. This is the first report for any dinosaur of skin traces that cover entire footprints, and every footprint in a trackway. Special sedimentological conditions allowed footprint registration without smearing of skin texture patterns...

Diattenuation Imaging reveals different brain tissue properties

When transmitting polarised light through histological brain sections, different types of diattenuation (polarisation-dependent attenuation of light) can be observed: In some brain regions, the light is minimally attenuated when it is polarised parallel to the nerve fibres (referred to as D+), in others, it is maximally attenuated (referred to as D−). The underlying mechanisms of...

Synthesis of salt-stable fluorescent nanoparticles (quantum dots) by polyextremophile halophilic bacteria

Here we report the biological synthesis of CdS fluorescent nanoparticles (Quantum Dots, QDs) by polyextremophile halophilic bacteria isolated from Atacama Salt Flat (Chile), Uyuni Salt Flat (Bolivia) and the Dead Sea (Israel). In particular, a Halobacillus sp. DS2, a strain presenting high resistance to NaCl (3–22%), acidic pH (1–4) and cadmium (CdCl2 MIC: 1,375 mM) was used for...

Prognostic nomogram of hypoxia-related genes predicting overall survival of colorectal cancer–Analysis of TCGA database

Hypoxia-related gene (HRG) expression is associated with survival outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our aim was developing a nomogram predicting CRC overall survival (OS) with HRGs and clinicopathological factors. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used as discovery cohort and two Gene Expression Omnibus databases (GSE39582 and GSE41258) served as validation cohorts...

Egg White Hydrolysate as a functional food ingredient to prevent cognitive dysfunction in rats following long-term exposure to aluminum

Aluminum (Al), which is omnipresent in human life, is a potent neurotoxin. Here, we have tested the potential for Egg White Hydrolysate (EWH) to protect against changes in cognitive function in rats exposed to both high and low levels of Al. Indeed, EWH has been previously shown to improve the negative effects induced by chronic exposure to heavy metals. Male Wistar rats received...

Social context effects on error-related brain activity are dependent on interpersonal and achievement-related traits

Brain correlates of performance monitoring, such as the Error-Related Negativity (ERN), are considerably influenced by situational factors. For instance, errors committed during social interaction typically elicit enhanced ERNs. While individual differences in ERN magnitude have been implicated in a wide variety of psychopathologies, it remains unclear how individual dispositions...

Integrator is a key component of human telomerase RNA biogenesis

Telomeres are special DNA-protein structures that are located at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes. The telomere length determines the proliferation potential of cells. Telomerase is a key component of the telomere length maintenance system. While telomerase is inactive in the majority of somatic cells, its activity determines the clonogenic potential of stem cells as a...

Introduction of ‘Generalized Genomic Signatures’ for the quantification of neighbour preferences leads to taxonomy- and functionality-based distinction among sequences

Analysis of DNA composition at several length scales constitutes the bulk of many early studies aimed at unravelling the complexity of the organization and functionality of genomes. Dinucleotide relative abundances are considered an idiosyncratic feature of genomes, regarded as a ‘genomic signature’. Motivated by this finding, we introduce the ‘Generalized Genomic Signatures...

Efficacy of High-intensity Statin Use for Transient Ischemic Attack Patients with Positive Diffusion-weighted Imaging

To determine whether positive or negative DWI TIA patients could get benefits from HST we conducted a cohort study which data from the prospective, hospital-based, TIA database of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. The end-point was 7-day and 90-day incidence of stroke. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze the association between end...

High content screening identifies monensin as an EMT-selective cytotoxic compound

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in cancer metastasis and drug resistance. Specifically targeting cancer cells in an EMT-like state may have therapeutic value. In this study, we developed a cell imaging-based high-content screening protocol to identify EMT-selective cytotoxic compounds. Among the 2,640 compounds tested, salinomycin and monensin, both...

A universal dimensionality function for the fractal dimensions of Laplacian growth

Laplacian growth, associated to the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model or the more general dielectric-breakdown model (DBM), is a fundamental out-of-equilibrium process that generates structures with characteristic fractal/non-fractal morphologies. However, despite diverse numerical and theoretical attempts, a data-consistent description of the fractal dimensions of the...

Molecular evidence for distinct modes of nutrient acquisition between visceral and neurotropic schistosomes of birds

Trichobilharzia species are parasitic flatworms (called schistosomes or flukes) that cause important diseases in birds and humans, but very little is known about their molecular biology. Here, using a transcriptomics-bioinformatics-based approach, we explored molecular aspects pertaining to the nutritional requirements of Trichobilharzia szidati (‘visceral fluke’) and T. regenti...

Pancreatic adenocarcinomas with mature blood vessels have better overall survival

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is known for its hypovascularity. Bevacizumab, an anti-angiogenic drug, added to standard chemotherapy demonstrated no improvement in outcome for PDAC. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased vascularity may be associated with improved outcomes in PDAC possibly due to better delivery of tumor specific immune cells. To test this hypothesis...

Fluorescence Polarization of Methylene Blue as a Quantitative Marker of Breast Cancer at the Cellular Level

A quantitative technique to detect cancer in single cells could transform cancer diagnosis. Current cancer diagnosis utilizes histopathology, which requires tissue acquisition, extensive processing and, in most cases, relies on the qualitative morphological analysis of tissues and cells. Molecular biomarkers are only available for a few specific tumor subtypes. We discovered that...

Clonal dynamics monitoring during clinical evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is the most prevalent leukaemia in Western countries. It is an incurable disease characterized by a highly variable clinical course. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is an ideal model for studying clonal heterogeneity and dynamics during cancer progression, response to therapy and/or relapse because the disease usually develops over several years. Here...

Metabolic phenotype of breast-fed infants, and infants fed standard formula or bovine MFGM supplemented formula: a randomized controlled trial

Formula-fed (FF) infants exhibit a different metabolic profile than breast-fed (BF) infants. Two potential mechanisms are the higher protein level in formula compared with breast milk and the removal of the milk fat and associated milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) during production of infant formula. To determine whether MFGM may impact metabolism, formula-fed infants were...

Numerical Issues for Solving Eu-type Generalized Hydrodynamic Equations to Investigate Continuum-rarefied Gas Flows

Eu-type generalized hydrodynamic equations have been derived from the Boltzmann kinetic theory and applied to investigate continuum and/or rarefied gas flows. This short communication first reports detailed and important issues in the use of the mixed discontinuous Galerkin method to solve Eu-type generalized hydrodynamic equations in multidimensions. Three major issues are...

Temporal dynamics of access to amodal representations of category-level conceptual information

Categories describe semantic divisions between classes of objects and category-based models are widely used for investigation of the conceptual system. One critical issue in this endeavour is the isolation of conceptual from perceptual contributions to category-differences. An unambiguous way to address this confound is combining multiple input-modalities. To this end, we showed...

The brittle-ductile transition in active volcanoes

Contrasting deformation mechanisms precede volcanic eruptions and control precursory signals. Density increase and high uplifts consistent with magma intrusion and pressurization are in contrast with dilatant responses and reduced surface uplifts observed before eruptions. We investigate the impact that the rheology of rocks constituting the volcanic edifice has on the...

Slow insertion of silicon probes improves the quality of acute neuronal recordings

Neural probes designed for extracellular recording of brain electrical activity are traditionally implanted with an insertion speed between 1 µm/s and 1 mm/s into the brain tissue. Although the physical effects of insertion speed on the tissue are well studied, there is a lack of research investigating how the quality of the acquired electrophysiological signal depends on the...

Astrocytoma progression scoring system based on the WHO 2016 criteria

Diffuse astrocytoma (including glioblastoma) is morbid with a worse prognosis than other types of glioma. Therefore, we sought to build a progression-associated score to improve malignancy and prognostic predictions for astrocytoma. The astrocytoma progression (AP) score was constructed through bioinformatics analyses of the training cohort (TCGA RNA-seq) and included 18 genes...

Computational insights into the role of α-strand/sheet in aggregation of α-synuclein

The α-synuclein is a major component of amyloid fibrils found in Lewy bodies, the characteristic intracellular proteinaceous deposits which are pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia. It is an intrinsically disordered protein that may undergo dramatic structural changes to form amyloid fibrils. Aggregation process from...

Responses to soil pH gradients of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria community

Soil pH is commonly considered a dominant factor affecting the function of microbiota. Few studies, however, have focused on communities of bacteria able to solubilize inorganic phosphate (iPSB), which are important for the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P), because finding an effective method to assess the abundance and diversity of iPSB communities is difficult. We used a...